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Table 1 Pre-period1 demographic and clinical characteristics (baseline)

From: Evaluating the relationship between clinical and demographic characteristics of insulin-using people with diabetes and their health outcomes: a cluster analysis application

  Total T1DM T2DM p
  N % N % N %  
Total Number of People With Diabetes 100,650 100% 11,826 11.7% 88,824 88.3%
Subgroup of Existing Insulin Users During the Pre-period 79,053 78.5% 10,975 92.8% 68,078 76.6% < 0.0001
Characteristics
Age (n, %)        < 0.0001
  18–40 8068 8.0% 4843 41.0% 3225 3.6%  
  41–60 32,960 32.7% 4713 39.9% 28,247 31.8%  
   > 60 59,622 59.2% 2270 19.2% 57,352 64.6%  
Age (mean, SD) 62.18 14.24 45.26 16.27 64.43 12.30 < 0.0001
Gender (n, %)        0.0003
  Male 51,983 51.6% 6290 53.2% 45,693 51.4%  
  Female 48,651 48.3% 5532 46.8% 43,119 48.5%  
  Missing 16 0.0% 4 0.0% 12 0.0%  
Business Line (n, %)        < 0.0001
  Commercial 43,573 43.3% 9566 80.9% 34,007 38.3%  
  Medicare advantage 57,077 56.7% 2260 19.1% 54,817 61.7%  
Household Income, in US Dollars
  n (%) 100,196 99.5% 11,801 99.8% 88,395 99.5%  
  Median, Q1 - Q3 $54,143 $43,184 - $69,606 $63,304 $49,195 - $81,547 $53,299 $42,675 - $68,059 < 0.0001
Medical Claims
  Number of Medical Claims (median, Q1 - Q3) 7.00 4.00–15.00 5.00 3.00–10.00 8.00 4.00–15.00 < 0.0001
  Proportion of Medical Claims 2,3 That are Diabetes Related (mean, SD) 0.54 0.31 0.60 0.33 0.52 0.30 < 0.0001
Number of HbA1c Tests
  One or More Tests Performed (n, %) 60,668 60.3% 7137 60.4% 53,531 60.3% 0.86
  Mean, SD 0.91 0.93 0.89 0.88 0.91 0.94 0.0007
Latest HbA1c Value
  n (%) 31,410 31.2% 3417 28.9% 27,993 31.5%  
  Mean, SD 8.84 1.94 8.38 1.64 8.89 1.96 < 0.0001
Insulin Administration and Diabetes Technology (n, %)        < 0.0001
  CGM with pump 1974 2.0% 1734 14.7% 240 0.3%  
  CGM with pen 800 0.8% 342 2.9% 458 0.5%  
  CGM with vial 277 0.3% 200 1.7% 77 0.1%  
  BGM with pump 2098 2.1% 1516 12.8% 582 0.7%  
  BGM with pen 23,078 22.9% 2032 17.2% 21,046 23.7%  
  BGM with vial 8380 8.3% 1078 9.1% 7302 8.2%  
  No CGM or BGM/pump 2410 2.4% 1236 10.5% 1174 1.3%  
  No CGM or BGM/pen 44,108 43.8% 2208 18.7% 41,900 47.2%  
  No CGM or BGM/vial 17,525 17.4% 1480 12.5% 16,045 18.1%  
Type of Insulin (n, %)        < 0.0001
  N 77,912 77.4% 10,524 89.0% 67,388 75.9%  
  Basal only 31,917 41.0% 893 8.5% 31,024 46.0%  
  Bolus only 8949 11.5% 4742 45.1% 4207 6.2%  
  Both 37,046 47.5% 4889 46.5% 32,157 47.7%  
Months on Insulin (mean, SD) 3.99 3.48 4.81 3.26 3.89 3.49 < 0.0001
Clinical Characteristics
Number of Concordant Comorbidities (mean, SD) 4.20 2.57 0.87 1.17 4.64 2.38 < 0.0001
Number of Discordant Comorbidities (mean, SD) 1.07 1.11 1.83 1.62 0.97 0.98 < 0.0001
Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) (mean, SD) 1.86 1.60 1.40 1.21 1.92 1.63 < 0.0001
Diabetes Complication Severity Index (DCSI) (mean, SD) 1.07 1.47 0.58 1.09 1.13 1.50 < 0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: BGM = blood glucose monitoring; CGM = continuous glucose monitoring; HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c; n, N = number of people with diabetes; Q1 = first quartile; Q3 = third quartile; SD = standard deviation; T1DM = type 1 diabetes mellitus; T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus; US = United States
  2. 1 Pre-period was defined as 6 months prior to index date
  3. 2 Proportion is set to zero for those members who had zero medical claims overall during the baseline period
  4. 3 Diabetes–related determined by diagnosis in any diagnostic position on a medical claim