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Table 2 Odds of receiving care from only one generalist physician. Results are for admissions aged 66+ without an Intensive Care Unit stay during hospitalization, adjusted for patient characteristics, from a two level logistic regression model (hospital and admission), among a 20% sample of US fee-for-service Medicare enrollees age > 66 years, from 1/1/16 to 12/31/18

From: Variation among hospitals in the continuity of care for older hospitalized patients: a cross-sectional cohort study

Characteristic N (%) Observed rate Model 1
Odds Ratioa (95% Confidence Interval)
Model 2
Odds Ratioa (95% Confidence Interval)
All 729,417 43.1%   
Age (Per year)     
Q1 (> = 66; <=73) 188,231 (25.8%) 42.8% Reference Reference
Q2 (> = 74; <=80) 182,726 (25.1%) 43.1% 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 1.00 (0.99–1.02)
Q3 (> = 81; <=87) 189,102 (25.9%) 43.1% 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 1.01 (0.99–1.03)
Q4 (> = 87) 169,358 (23.2%) 43.3% 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.03 (1.01–1.04)
Education (Percent of persons age 25+ in Zip area with high school education) (per percent)
Q1 (<=82.8) 183,360 (25.1%) 48.2% Reference Reference
Q2 (> = 82.9; <=88.7) 182,269 (25.0%) 44.0% 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.99 (0.98–1.01)
Q3 (> = 88.8; <=93.0) 183,500 (25.2%) 41.1% 0.97 (0.96–0.99) 0.98 (0.96–0.99)
Q4 (> = 93.1) 180,288 (24.7%) 38.9% 0.98 (0.96–0.99) 0.98 (0.97–1.01)
Year     
2016 239,223 (32.8%) 44.4% Reference Reference
2017 247,960 (34.0%) 43.1% 0.96 (0.95–0.97) 0.96 (0.95–0.97)
2018 242,234 (33.2%) 41.7% 0.91 (0.90–0.92) 0.91 (0.90–0.92)
Gender     
Female 440,343 (60.4%) 43.5% Reference Reference
Male 289,074 (39.6%) 42.5% 1.01 (1.01–1.02) 1.01 (1.01–1.02)
Medicaid     
No 570,166 (78.2%) 42.3% Reference Reference
Yes 159,251 (21.8%) 46.0% 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 1.01 (0.99–1.03)
Race     
White 612,701 (84.0%) 42.3% Reference Reference
Black 64,030 (8.8%) 46.4% 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.03 (1.01–1.05)
Hispanic 30,267 (4.1%) 49.9% 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.99 (0.97–1.02)
Other 22,419 (3.1%) 45.0% 1.02 (0.98–1.05) 1.02 (0.99–1.05)
Residence prior to hospitalization    
Community 667,721 (91.5%) 43.2% Reference Reference
Nursing facility or
other institution
61,696 (8.5%) 42.1% 0.94 (0.92–0.96) 0.94 (0.92–0.96)
Length of stay     
3 days 315,555 (43.2%) 50.1% Reference Reference
4 days 202,754 (27.8%) 41.9% 0.68 (0.67–0.69) 0.68 (0.67–0.69)
5 days 127,899 (17.5%) 35.5% 0.49 (0.48–0.50) 0.50 (0.49–0.50)
6 days 83,209 (11.4%) 30.8% 0.38 (0.38–0.39) 0.39 (0.38–0.39)
Number of hospitalizations in 12 months before admission (per hospitalization)
0 335,465 (46.0%) 42.8% Reference Reference
1 186,403 (25.6%) 42.8% 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 1.01 (0.99–1.02)
2 and 3 147,014 (20.2%) 43.5% 1.03 (1.02–1.05) 1.03 (1.02–1.05)
4 and above 60,535 (8.3%) 44.3% 1.05 (1.02–1.07) 1.05 (1.02–1.07)
Emergency hospitalization
No 143,678 (19.7%) 50.0% Reference Reference
Yes 585,739 (80.3%) 41.4% 0.77 (0.75–0.78) 0.77 (0.76–0.79)
Weekend hospitalization    
No 505,956 (69.4%) 45.2% Reference Reference
Yes 223,461 (30.6%) 38.3% 0.73 (0.73–0.74) 0.73 (0.73–0.74)
Bed size     
> 500 169,656 (23.3%) 39.9% Reference
201–500 314,367 (43.1%) 40.5% 1.04 (0.91–1.20)
<=200 245,394 (33.6%) 48.6% 1.37 (1.19–1.58)
Location     
Rural 138,481 (19.0%) 53.1% Reference
Urban 590,936 (81.0%) 40.7% 0.64 (0.59–0.70)
Type of provider     
For profit 96,302 (13.3%) 52.1% Reference
Public 97,306 (13.3%) 48.3% 0.82 (0.74–0.92)
Non-profit 535,809 (73.4%) 40.5% 0.54 (0.49, 0.59)
Medical school affiliation   
Major 143,993 (19.7%) 41.3% Reference
Limited 144,656 (19.8%) 40.0% 0.80 (0.69–0.92)
Graduate 31,784 (4.4%) 38.1% 0.83 (0.66, 1.04)
No affiliation 408,984 (56.1%) 45.2% 0.96 (0.85, 1.10)
  1. aOdds ratio are from multilevel model (admission and hospital) adjusted for all characteristics presented in the table, as well as the 31 Elixhauser comorbidities (each entered separately), and the Diagnosis Related Group-Major Diagnostic Category (DRG-MDC) codes. Results for the comorbidities and DRG-MDC are presented in Supplementary eTable 1