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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Personal barriers to addressing intimate partner abuse: a qualitative meta-synthesis of healthcare practitioners’ experiences

Study Number Authors Year (Country) Objective Summary HCP Setting Sample Size Data Collection / Analysis Method Years of clinical experience
1 Aziz & El-Gazzar [28] 2019
To explore the attitude of HCPs about screening for and dealing with IPA in the health care setting and to assess the physicians’ screening behaviour. Hospital N = 22 Focus groups / Thematic analysis Average: <  5 years
2 Baig et al. [29] 2012
To examine provider
barriers and facilitators to screening for IPA
Hospital N = 27 Interviews / Un-named analysis method describing content analysis Not provided
3 Colarossi et al. [30] 2010
To expand current knowledge by comparing licensed family planning service providers (advanced practice clinicians and social workers) and unlicensed ones (health care assistants) who work in a setting guided by institutional policy and procedure for IPA screening. Family Planning Centre N = 64 Focus Groups / Grounded Theory Range: <  5 years - over 10 years
4 Conn et al. [31] 2014
To explore orthopedic surgery residents’ knowledge of IPA and their preparedness to screen patients for IPA in a fracture clinic setting with a view to developing targeted IPA education and training. Hospital N = 64 Focus Groups / Unspecified inductive analysis Range: 1–5 years
5 Columbini et al. [32] 2013 (Malaysia) To analyse barriers and opportunities to implement and integrate effective health service responses to IPA at different levels of the health system. Hospital N = 54 Interviews / Framework Analysis Not provided
6 Djikanovic et al. [33] 2010
To identify HCPs’ perceptions and attitudes regarding IPV in Serbia (Belgrade), as well as how they perceive barriers for providing appropriate help for women who have experienced IPA. Healthcare Clinic N = 71 Focus Groups / Qualitative content analysis Not provided
7 Efe & Taskin [34] 2012
To delineate the factors that prevent the adequate provision of nursing services to women subjected to IPA. Hospital N = 30 Interviews / Descriptive analysis Not provided
8 Finnbogadottir & Dykes [35] 2012 (Sweden) To explore midwives’ awareness of and clinical experience regarding IPA among pregnant women in southern Sweden. Hospital N = 16 Focus Groups / Content text analysis Range: 4–36 years
9 Gallagher [36] 2014
To explore how educational psychologists conceptualised IPA
and the role they could have in working with schools and children and families.
Urban local services N = 5 Interviews / Thematic analysis Range: 4–15 years
10 Guruge [37] 2012
(Sri Lanka)
To explore how Sri Lankan nurses perceive their role in caring for women experiencing IPA. Hospital N = 30 Interviews / Thematic analysis Range: 1–15 years
11 Husso et al. [38] 2012 (Finland) To explore how HCPs make sense of IPA interventions and the organisational practices of these interventions. Health Clinic N = 30 Focus Groups / Framework analysis Not provided
12 Mauri et al. [39] 2015
To explore midwives’ knowledge and clinical experience of IPA among pregnant women, with particular emphasis on their perceptions of their professional role. Hospital & local health N = 15 Interviews / Content analysis Range: 8 months to 35 years
13 McCauley et al. [40] 2017 (Pakistan) To investigate the knowledge and perceptions of IPA among doctors who provide routine antenatal and postnatal care at healthcare facilities in Pakistan. Hospital N = 25 Interviews/ Thematic framework analysis Range: 2–10 years
14 Papadakaki et al. [41] 2014
To explore the perceptions and practices of general practitioners (GPs) regarding the identification and management of IPA in primary care settings. Primary Care N = 18 Focus Groups / Thematic analysis Mean 12 years
15 Pau [42] 2015 (Malaysia) To examine factors that influence Malaysian health care providers’ attitudes, knowledge, and responses to IPA survivors, including their perceptions of IPA, factors that influenced the ways they work with IPV survivors, factors they perceived influenced IPA survivors’ help-seeking behaviors, and their recommendations for improving IPA training. Hospital, NGOs and department of social welfare N = 17 Interviews / Constant comparative analysis Range 1–30 years (md = 5 years)
16 Pitter [43] 2016 (Jamaica) To improve the capacity of midwives to identify and treat pregnant women experiencing IPA in Jamaica. Hospital N = 6 Focus Groups / content analysis Range: <  1–11 years
17 Rahmqvist et al. [44] 2019
To describe emergency nurses’ experiences when caring for victims of violence and their family members in emergency departments. Hospital N = 12 Interviews / Qualitative content analysis Median 4.5 years
18 Robinson [45] 2010
To identify how registered nurses screen for intimate partner violence in the emergency department. Hospital N = 13 Interviews / Colaizzi’s seven step analysis Not provided
19 Rose et al. [46] 2011
To explore the facilitators and barriers to disclosure of IPA from a service user and professional perspective. Mental Health Services N = 20 Interviews / Unspecified thematic analysis Range: 4–29 years
20 Sormanti & Smith [47] 2010
To explore health physicians’ reactions and ideas about IPA screening in the emergency department setting. Hospital N = 25 Focus Groups / Content analysis Not provided
21 Spangaro et al. [20] 2011
To understand challenges, and enablers of screening apply this to a model of how health policies become routinized in practice. Health Services N = 59 Focus Groups / Unspecified inductive analysis Not provided
22 Sun et al. [48] 2019
(Hong Kong)
To investigate the barriers of Hong Kong primary care physicians toward managing IPA, including barriers of recognition, management, and referrals of these patients. Hospital N = 26 Focus Groups / Content analysis Not provided
23 Sundborg et al. [49] 2017 (Sweden) To improve understanding of district nurses’ experiences of encountering women exposed to IPA. Primary Care N = 11 Interviews / content analysis Not provided
24 Usta et al. [50] 2014 (Lebanon) To explore physicians’ attitudes about responding to IPA, their perception of the physician’s role, and the factors that influence their response. Primary Care N = 67 Interviews / Thematic analysis Mean 19 years
25 Van der Wath [51] 2019
(South Africa)
To uncover discourses that may help understand emergency nurses’ responses towards women exposed to IPA. Hospital N = 15 Focus Groups / Unspecified thematic analysis Not provided
26 Visentin et al. [52] 2015
To identify the actions conducted by primary health care nurses for women in situations of IPA. Health Units N = 17 Interviews / Content analysis Range: <  1–21 years
27 Watson et al. [53] 2017
To address the gap in the literature concerning the key conditions therapists experience when working with women over the age of 45 presenting with IPA. Mental Health N = 17 Interviews / Grounded theory approach Range 1–20 years
28 Zakar et al. [54] 2011 (Pakistan) To investigate the response of primary health care physicians in diagnosing and treating the victims of IPA in Pakistan. Hospital N = 24 Interviews / Unspecified thematic analysis Range 3–26 years
29 Zijlstra et al. [55] 2017 (Netherlands) To examine factors facilitating and constraining the identification and management of IPA at an emergency department. Hospital N = 18 Interviews / content analysis Range: <  1–15 years