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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: How do reminder systems in follow-up screening for women with previous gestational diabetes work? - a realist review

Case Author and year Study design Setting /population Usual care Intervention components and timing Outcome Effectiveness
1 Heatley et al. 2013 [43] Protocol Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, Australia. 276 women with GDM were included in the study A single text message reminder to control group 6 months after birth Type reminder: SMS to women. Additional components: None. Timing: At birth, 6 weeks after birth, and if no response again three-six months after Primary: OGTT-test. Secondary: Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c. Time: 6 months after birth. _
Van Ryswyk et al. 2015 [29] RCT _ _ _ _ No increase in test: Control 77.6% vs. intervention 76.8%, RR = 1.01, CI: 0.89–1.15
Van Ryswyk et al. 2016 [12] Survey _ _ _ Women’s experience _
2 Clark et al. 2009 [30] RCT A tertiary high-risk Obstetric unit in Ottawa, Canada. 220 women with GDM were included in the study Antenatal clinic visits Type reminder: Postal reminder to women, physicians, or both. Additional components: Testing reminders to both women/physicians Timing: 3 months after birth Primary: OGTT-test. Secondary: Other tests. Time: Within one year after birth Test increased: Physicians: OR 8.4 CI: 2.4–28.5, Patients: OR = 8.7, CI: 2.9–25.6, Patients and physicians: OR = 5.2, CI: 1.4–19.6
Keely et al. 2010 [42] Survey _ _ _ Women and physician’s experience _
3 Vesco et al. 2012 [31] Pre/post Obstetric department in Washington, USA. 379 women with GDM were included in the study No reminder for post-partum follow-up Type reminder: Telephone call to women. Additional components: Education module for health care providers Timing: 3 months after birth and if no response email 3/6 months after birth Primary: OGTT-test ordered and completed. Secondary: Fasting blood glucose. Time: Within 3 months and 3 months after birth Test completion increased: from 59.5–71.5%, HR = 1.37; CI:1.07–1.75
4 Korpi-Hyovalti et al. 2012 [32] Observational A central hospital and four rural municipalities in South Ostrobothnia, Finland. 266 women in high-risk-for GDM and their physicians Women and their physician were included from a lifestyle interventions program during pregnancy Type reminder: Telephone call to women or their physicians. Additional components: None. Timing: One year after birth Primary: OGTT-test. Secondary: None. Time: within study period 2005–2008 Test increased: OR = 13.4, CI: 4.6–38.1, P < 0.001
5 Halperin et al. 2015 [40] Pre/post Tertiary high-risk Health Centre in Sunnybrook, Canada. 300 women with GDM were included in the study Women are provided with a requisition and appointment for screening during pregnancy. Consult notes are send back to the referring physician Type reminder: E-mail to women and fax to family physicians. Additional components: Improvements in physicians’ dictations. Timing: One months prior to screening test Primary: OGTT-test. Secondary: OGTT-test, Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c Time: 6 months after birth. Secondary 12 months after birth Test increased: from 33 to 44%, P = 0.008
6 Soffer et al. 2017 [38] Pre/post Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, USA. 107 women with GDM pre- intervention and 42 post-intervention Not mentioned Type reminder: Telephone call to women. Additional components: Education module for women and health care workers during pregnancy. Timing: Before 6 -weeks after birth Primary: Screening visits scheduled, test completion. Time: 6-weeks after birth Test increased: from 17 to 36% P = 0.01
7 Zera et al. 2015 [39] RCT Primary care sites in Boston, USA. 850 women with GDM in contact with the primary care site Screening reminder not visible to providers Type reminder: Message to physicians in electronic health record system. Additional components: None. Timing: More than 3 months after birth Primary: HbA1c, OGTT-test, and fasting blood glucose. Time: Dec. 2012 No increase in test: OR = 1.04, CI 0.79–1.38, P = 0.67
8 Shea et al. 2011 [33] Observational Three clinics in Ottawa, Canada. 262 women with GDM were included in the study Education classes which give information on post-partum screening Type reminder: E-mail to women (A) or Postal reminder/Telephone call to women (B) Additional components: A laboratory requisition is included in mail. Timing: 3 months after birth Primary: OGTT-test. Secondary: other tests. Time: Six months after birth. Test increased: A: OR = 1.57, CI: 0.66; 3.70. B: OR = 3.10, CI:1.35–7.14
9 Lega et al. 2012 [34] Observational Endocrine Obstetric clinic, Women’s College Hospital in Toronto, Canada 314 women were included in the study, 173 had a checklist on their chart No checklist was placed in women’s charts during their postpartum visit Type reminder: Checklist in women’s charts during pregnancy to remind physicians to arrange and provide information about follow up screening. Additional components: None. Timing: between 6 weeks and 6 months after birth Primary: OGTT-test. Time: 6 months after birth Test increased: OR = 2.99, CI: 1.84–4.85
10 Mendez-Figueroa et al. 2014 [35] Pre/post Women and Infants Hospital, New England, USA. 181 women with GDM pre- intervention and 207 post-intervention Women were routinely informed of screening and a scheduled appointment during pregnancy Type reminder: Telephone call to women. Additional components: Information and a pre-scheduled time for screening in pregnancy were provided by an outreach nurse. Timing: One week prior to screening 4–6 weeks after birth Primary: OGTT-test. Time: 12 months after implementation Test increased: from 43.1 to 59.4%, HR = 1.59; CI: 1.20–2.12, P < 0.01,
11 Olmos et al. 2015 [36] Observational Outpatient clinics in Santiago, Chile. 468 women with GDM were included in the study Not specified Type reminder: Letter to women Additional components: None. Timing: In pregnancy Primary: OGTT-test. Time: 6 weeks after birth Test increased: from 32 -76%, P = 0.001
12 Peticca et al. 2014 [37] Observational Queensway Carleton Hospital (both secondary and tertiary) in Ottawa, Canada. 542 women with GDM were included in the study Education module to women during pregnancy Type reminder: Email to women Additional components: Laboratory requisition. Timing: Within three months after birth Primary: OGTT-test. Secondary: OGTT-test, Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c. Time: Up to 12 months after birth. Secondary 12 months after birth Test increased: Within first year: OR = 1.85, CI: 1.14–3.01, after first year; OR = 2.54, CI: 1.65–3.91
13 Sarmiento et al. 2019 [41] RCT A Public tertiary referral center at a general Hospital in Manila, Philippines. 308 women, mostly from lower income brackets, with GDM were included in the study A 10-min lecture on screening prior discharge Type reminder: SMS to women Additional components: None. Timing: Twice a week at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 10 weeks after birth Primary: Clinics visit and OGTT-test. Time: Within 6 to 12 weeks after birth No increase in test: adjusted RR 0.98, CI: 0.63–1.52; P = 0.932