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Table 3 Health resources use for each year per patient

From: Costs and healthcare utilisation of patients with chronic kidney disease in Spain

  2015 2016 P2016–2015 2017 P2017–2015 2018 P2018–2015 2019 P2019–2015 Total
mean SD mean SD mean SD mean SD mean SD mean SD
Primary care visits 12.4 14.8 10.6 12.3 < 0.001 9.2 10.4 < 0.001 8.4 9.6 < 0.001 7.5 8.3 < 0.001 48.1 55.8
Specialized care visits 1.9 4.1 1.1 4.3 < 0.001 1.0 4.2 < 0.001 0.9 4.1 < 0.001 0.7 3.9 < 0.001 5.6 7.2
Emergency room visits 0.7 2.3 0.6 2.6 < 0.001 0.5 2.1 < 0.001 0.5 2.1 < 0.001 0.4 1.9 < 0.001 2.7 4.5
Laboratory requests 0.8 1.2 0.7 1.5 < 0.001 0.7 1.5 < 0.001 0.6 1.4 < 0.001 0.6 1.3 < 0.001 3.4 5.1
Radiology and other tests 0.6 1.3 0.6 1.3 0.6 1.4 0.7 1.5 < 0.001 0.7 1.5 < 0.001 3.2 4.2
Hospitalization
 - Days (all patients) 5.7 10.6 5.1 10.5 < 0.001 4.8 10.4 < 0.001 3.9 10.3 < 0.001 4.1 10.3 < 0.001 23.6 37.6
 - Hospitalized patients, n (%) 12,203 (27.6) 10,832 (24.5) < 0.001 10,081 (22.8) < 0.001 9727 (22.0) < 0.001 9373 (21.2) < 0.001 19,108 (43.2)
 - Days (for patients hospitalized) 16.4 10.6 16.5 10.6 0.161 16.7 10.70 < 0.001 16.8 11.0 < 0.001 17.0 11.2 < 0.001 4.2 23.6
 - Frequency of hospitalization, n (%)
  0 32,011 (72.4) 32,497 (73.5) < 0.001 33,515 (75.8) < 0.001 34,089 (77.1) < 0.001 34,398 (77.8) < 0.001 25,106 (57.0)
  1 10,302 (23.3) 9904 (22.4) 0.001 8754 (19.8) < 0.001 8091 (18.3) < 0.001 7783 (17.6) < 0.001 6986 (15.8)
  2 1636 (3.7) 1680 (3.8) 0.434 1724 (3.9) 0.12 1769 (4.0) 0.02 1724 (3.9) 0.12 5261 (11.9)
  3+ 265 (0.6) 133 (0.3) < 0.001 221 (0.5) 0.044 265 (0.6) 0.999 309 (0.7) 0.064 6862 (15.5)
Disability
 Days of disability 0.3 4.2 0.3 4.5 0.4 5.6 0.003 0.4 5.9 0.004 0.4 5.9 0.004 1.9 17.5
 Average days of sick leave (disability only) 41.3 42.3 42.4 43.6 < 0.001 45.3 46.5 < 0.001 44.2 47.1 < 0.001 46.1 47.6 < 0.001 60.3 63.4
 Patients with disability, n (%) 354 (0.8) 354 (0.8) 398 (0.9) 0.105 442 (1.0) 0.002 398 (0.9) 0.105 1326 (3.0)
Mortality, n (%) 3847 (8.7) 3007 (6.8) < 0.001 2432 (5.5) < 0.001 2166 (4.9) < 0.001 1901 (4.3) < 0.001 13,353 (30.2)
Patients alive at the end of the year, n 40,367 37,360 34,928 32,762 30,861