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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of the CKD population at index date (1st January 2015) and according to the presence of type 2 diabetes and CKD stage

From: Costs and healthcare utilisation of patients with chronic kidney disease in Spain

  Diabetes status CKD stage Total (n = 44,214; 100%)
Non T2D (n = 24,229; 54.8%) T2D (n = 19,985; 45.2%) p Stage 1 (n = 2159; 4.9%) Stage 2 (n = 7386;16.7%) P2 vs 1 Stage 3a (n = 14,065; 31.8%) P3a vs 1 Stage 3b (n = 12,203; 27.6%) P3b vs 1 Stage 4 (n = 3537; 8.0%) P4 vs 1 Stage 5 (n = 1592; 3.6%) P5 vs 1 Unspecified (n = 3272; 7.4%) PUnsp. vs 1
Biodemographic data
 Age, years 76.4 ± 14.1 75.8 ± 14.0 0.001 69.8 ± 14.7 74.5 ± 13.9 < 0.001 76.8 ± 14.2 < 0.001 78.1 ± 14.3 < 0.001 79.2 ± 14.5 < 0.001 79.8 ± 14.6 < 0.001 65.1 ± 11.4 < 0.001 76.4 ± 14.3
 Sex, Female, n (%) 11,892 (49.1) 9773 (48.9) < 0.001 1105 (51.2) 3545 (48.0) < 0.001 6779 (48.2) < 0.001 5992 (49.1) 0.072 1680 (47.5) < 0.001 876 (55.0) < 0.001 1688 (51.6) 0.773 21,665 (49.0)
Physical examination and laboratory tests
 BMI, Kg/m2 28.4 ± 5.2 29.3 ± 5.0 < 0.001 29.3 ± 5.0 29.2 ± 5.0 0.307 28.6 ± 5.2 < 0.001 28.5 ± 5.1 < 0.001 28.1 ± 5.0 < 0.001 27.8 ± 4.9 < 0.001 29.6 ± 5.1 0.007 28.7 ± 5.1
 SBP, mmHg 136.2 ± 20.2 138.3 ± 20.3 < 0.001 135.9 ± 20.1 138.2 ± 20.6 < 0.001 138.3 ± 20.6 0.194 138.6 ± 20.4 0.148 137.5 ± 20.7 0.392 135.2 ± 20.5 0.791 137.8 ± 20.0 0.392 137.1 ± 20.2
 UACR, mg/g 347.4 ± 172.3 391.3 ± 189.4 < 0.001 106.8 ± 49.8 126.9 ± 53.5 < 0.001 250.3 ± 120.1 < 0.001 252.1 ± 120.9 < 0.001 1602.4 ± 782.6 < 0.001 1642.3 ± 769.2 < 0.001 132.7 ± 60.2 < 0.001 362.9 ± 176.8
 UACR A1, n (%) 137 (0.56) 80 (0.4) < 0.001 0 0 0 0 0 0 217 (6.6) 217 (0.5)
 UACR A2, n (%) 16,493 (68.1) 9772 (48.9) < 0.001 2159 (100) 7386 (100) 8650 (61.5) < 0.001 7480 (61.3) < 0.001 432 (12.2) < 0.001 53 (3.3) < 0.001 105 (3.2) < 0.001 26,265 (64.5)
 UACR A3, n (%) 7599 (31.4) 10,133 (50.7) < 0.001 0 0 5415 (38.5) < 0.001 4723 (38.7) < 0.001 3105 (87.8) < 0.001 1539 (96.7) < 0.001 2950 (90.2) < 0.001 17,729 (35.0)
 eGFRa 49.6 ± 11.3 47.5 ± 12.4 < 0.001 93.8 ± 4.7 75.1 ± 5.0 < 0.001 52.2 ± 4.9 < 0.001 37.2 ± 5.0 < 0.001 21.9 ± 4.5 < 0.001 8.7 ± 4.3 < 0.001 48.7 ± 13.2
 eGFR ≥90a,n (%) 1324 (5.5) 835 (4.2) < 0.001 2159 (100) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2159 (4.9)
 eGFR 60–89a, n (%) 4216 (17.4) 3170 (15.9) < 0.001 0 7386 (100) 0 0 0 0 0 7386 (16.7)
 eGFR 45–59a, n (%) 7931 (32.7) 6134 (30.7) < 0.001 0 0 14,065 (100) 0 0 0 0 14,065 (31.8)
 eGFR 30–44a, n (%) 6572 (27.1) 5631 (28.2) < 0.001 0 0 0 12,203 (100) 0 0 0 12,203 (27.6)
 eGFR 15–29a, n (%) 1730 (7.1) 1807 (9.0) < 0.001 0 0 0 0 3537 (100) 0 0 3537 (8.0)
 eGFR < 15a, n (%) 644 (2.7) 948 (4.7) < 0.001 0 0 0 0 0   1592 (100) 0 1592 (3.6)
 HbA1c. % 6.2 ± 1.2 7.7 ± 2.0 < 0.001 6.4 ± 1.3 6.6 ± 1.4 0.001 6.9 ± 1.6 0.001 6.8 ± 1.5 < 0.001 6.9 ± 1.6 0.001 7.0 ± 1.5 0.001 7.0 ± 1.6 0.389 6.9 ± 1.6
 Creatinine. g/dL 1.3 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.5 0.759 0.6 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.4 < 0.001 1.1 ± 0.5 < 0.001 1.5 ± 0.8 < 0.001 2.2 ± 0.8 < 0.001 0.6 ± 0.2 0.999 1.0 ± 0.3 < 0.001 1.3 ± 0.6
 Uric acid. g/dL 6.0 ± 2.0 7.1 ± 1.2 < 0.001 6.6 ± 1.5 6.8 ± 1.6 0.041 6.7 ± 1.6 0.001 6.6 ± 1.5 0.999 6.7 ± 1.6 0.284 6.6 ± 1.6 0.999 6.7 ± 1.7 0.229 6.6 ± 1.6
Comorbidities, n (%)
 CKD stage 1 1324 (5.5) 835 (4.2) < 0.001 2159 (100) 0 < 0.001 0 0 0 0 0 2159 (4.9)
 CKD stage 2 4216 (17.4) 3170 (15.9) < 0.001 0 7386 (100) < 0.001 0 0 0 0 0 7386 (16.7)
 CKD stage 3a 7931 (32.7) 6134 (30.7) < 0.001 0 0 14,065 (100) 0 0 0 0 14,065 (31.8)
 CKD stage 3b 6572 (27.1) 5631 (28.2) < 0.001 0 0 0 12,203 (100) 0 0 0 12,203 (27.6)
 CKD stage 4 1730 (7.1) 1807 (9.0) < 0.001 0 0 0 0 3537 (100) 0 0 3537 (8.0)
 CKD stage 5 644 (2.7) 948 (4.7) < 0.001 0 0 0 0 0 1592 (100) 0 1592 (3.6)
 CKD not staged 1812 (7.5) 1460 (7.0) < 0.001 0 0 0 0 0 0 3272 (100) 3272 (7.4)
 CKD unspecified 6844 (28.2) 799 (4.0) < 0.001 319 (14.8) 1079 (14.6) 0.629 2411 (17.1) < 0.001 2173 (17.8) 0.001 508 (14.4) 0.678 237 (14.9) 0.932 916 (28.0) < 0.001 7643 (17.3)
 Dialysis 226 (0.9) 430 (3.2) < 0.001 0 0   0 0   0 656 (41.2) 0 656 (1.5)
 CVD 3616 (14.9) 4579 (22.9) < 0.001 296 (13.7) 1230 (16.7) < 0.001 2643 (18.8) < 0.001 2295 (18.8) < 0.001 597 (16.9) < 0.001 386 (24.3) < 0.001 748 (22.9) < 0.001 8195 (18.5)
 Myocardial infarction 3081 (12.7) 3671 (18.4) < 0.001 253 (11.7) 916 (12.4) 0.383 2255 (16.0) < 0.001 1920 (15.7) < 0.001 575 (16.3) < 0.001 274 (17.2) < 0.001 559 (17.1) < 0.001 6752 (15.3)
 Heart failure 4078 (16.8) 4782 (23.9) < 0.001 253 (11.7) 998 (13.5) < 0.001 2768 (19.7) < 0.001 2601 (21.3) < 0.001 831 (23.5) < 0.001 453 (28.4) < 0.001 956 (29.2) < 0.001 8860 (20.0)
 Stroke 2136 (8.8) 2492 (12.5) < 0.001 133 (6.2) 716 (9.7) < 0.001 1218 (8.7) < 0.001 1536 (12.6) < 0.001 398 (11.3) < 0.001 216 (13.6) < 0.001 411 (12.6) < 0.001 4628 (10.5)
 Atrial Fibrillation 3508 (14.5) 3306 (16.5) < 0.001 253 (11.7) 971 (13.2) 0.067 2374 (16.9) < 0.001 2000 (16.4) < 0.001 609 (17.2) < 0.001 278 (17.5) < 0.001 329 (10.1) 0.062 6814 (15.4)
 Peripheral artery disease 1003 (4.1) 921 (4.6) < 0.001 94 (4.4) 295 (4.0) 0.409 481 (3.4) 0.019 653 (5.4) 0.055 171 (4.8) 0.487 81 (5.1) 0.317 149 (4.6) 0.728 1924 (4.4)
 Diabetes 775 (3.2) 19,985 (100) < 0.001 933 (43.2) 3483 (47.2) < 0.001 6604 (47.0) < 0.001 5890 (48.3) < 0.001 1643 (46.5) 0.015 712 (44.7) 0.360 1495 (45.7) < 0.001 20,760 (47.0)
Medications, n (%)
Antihypertensives 17,518 (72.3) 17,346 (86.8) < 0.001 1625 (75.3) 5628 (76.2) 0.389 10,844 (77.1) 0.065 9737 (79.8) < 0.001 2975 (84.1) < 0.001 1345 (84.5) < 0.001 2849 (87.1) < 0.001 33,337 (75.4)
  RAAS inhibitors 14,944 (61.7) 16,427 (82.2) < 0.001 1436 (66.5) 5449 (73.8) < 0.001 10,267 (73.0) < 0.001 8490 (69.6) < 0.001 2530 (71.5) < 0.001 1156 (72.6) < 0.001 2043 (62.4) < 0.001 31,371 (71.0)
  ACEi 7198 (29.7) 6789 (34.0) < 0.001 711 (32.9) 2539 (34.4) 0.196 4286 (30.5) < 0.001 3467 (28.4) < 0.001 1265 (35.8) 0.010 592 (37.2) < 0.001 1127 (34.4) 0.253 13,987 (31.6)
  ACEi at maximal doses 339 (1.4) 401 (2.0) < 0.001 88 (4.1) 28 (0.4) < 0.001 181 (1.3) < 0.001 475 (3.9) 0.659 30 (0.8) < 0.001 27 (1.7) < 0.001 33 (1.0) < 0.001 740 (1.7)
  ARBs 8509 (35.1) 10,960 (54.8) < 0.001 874 (40.5) 2953 (40.0) 0.677 6446 (45.8) < 0.001 5690 (46.6) < 0.001 1675 (47.4) < 0.001 684 (43.0) < 0.001 1147 (35.1) < 0.001 19,469 (44.0)
  ARBs at maximal doses 465 (1.9) 736 (3.7) < 0.001 22 (1.0) 0 660 (4.7) < 0.001 393 (3.2) < 0.001 110 (3.1) < 0.001 16 (1.0) 0.999 0 1201 (2.7)
  Aldosterone antagonists 1471 (6.1) 1469 (7.4) < 0.001 155 (7.2) 325 (4.4) < 0.001 858 (6.1) 0.049 1031 (8.4) 0.061 288 (8.1) 0.218 151 (9.5) < 0.001 132 (4.0) < 0.001 2940 (6.6)
  Direct renin inhibitors 170 (0.7) 118 (0.6) < 0.001 8 (0.4) 26 (0.4) 0.999 80 (0.6) 0.252 84 (0.7) 0.111 30 (0.8) 0.068 12 (0.8) 0.108 48 (1.5) < 0.001 288 (0.7)
  ARNI 1124 (4.6) 2581 (12.9) < 0.001 202 (9.4) 631 (8.5) 0.192 1374 (9.8) 0.560 914 (7.5) 0.002 231 (6.5) 0.001 143 (9.0) 0.676 210 (6.4) < 0.001 3705 (8.4)
  Beta blockers 8315 (34.3) 7656 (38.3) < 0.001 598 (27.7) 2370 (32.1) < 0.001 5186 (36.9) < 0.001 4682 (38.4) < 0.001 1434 (40.5) < 0.001 685 (43.0) < 0.001 1016 (31.1) < 0.001 15,971 (36.1)
  Diuretics 8957 (37.0) 9260 (46.3) < 0.001 611 (28.3) 2755 (37.3) < 0.001 5802 (41.3) < 0.001 5607 (45.9) < 0.001 1592 (45.0) < 0.001 785 (49.3) < 0.001 1065 (32.5) < 0.001 18,217 (41.2)
  Thiazide diuretics 906 (3.7) 1347 (6.7) < 0.001 33 (1.5) 420 (5.7) < 0.001 715 (5.1) < 0.001 742 (6.1) < 0.001 174 (4.9) < 0.001 39 (2.4) 0.045 130 (4.0) < 0.001 2253 (5.1)
  Loop diuretics 7986 (33.0) 7884 (39.4) < 0.001 511 (23.7) 2228 (30.2) < 0.001 5063 (36.0) < 0.001 4852 (39.8) < 0.001 1552 (43.9) < 0.001 724 (45.5) < 0.001 940 (28.7) < 0.001 15,870 (35.9)
  Potassium sparing diuretics 1112 (4.6) 2457 (12.3) < 0.001 110 (5.1) 538 (7.3) < 0.001 1387 (9.9) < 0.001 1025 (8.4) < 0.001 210 (5.9) 0.203 175 (11.0) < 0.001 124 (3.8) 0.021 3569 (8.1)
  CCB 6280 (25.9) 7913 (39.6) < 0.001 596 (27.6) 2457 (33.3) < 0.001 4647 (33.0) < 0.001 3761 (30.8) < 0.001 1165 (32.9) < 0.001 521 (32.7) < 0.001 1046 (32.0) < 0.001 14,193 (32.1)
  Dihydropyridines 6300 (26.0) 6803 (34.0) < 0.001 613 (28.4) 2225 (30.1) < 0.001 3910 (27.8) 0.563 3716 (30.5) 0.050 1135 (32.1) < 0.001 490 (30.8) < 0.001 1014 (31.0) < 0.001 13,103 (29.6)
  Non-dihydropyridines 1265 (5.2) 397 (2.0) < 0.001 55 (2.5) 246 (3.3) 0.060 768 (5.5) < 0.001 210 (1.7) 0.010 198 (5.6) < 0.001 39 (2.4) 0.845 146 (4.5) < 0.001 1662 (3.8)
Antidiabetics 218 (0.9) 16,685 (83.5) < 0.001 814 (37.7) 2968 (40.2) < 0.001 4965 (35.3) < 0.001 4596 (37.7) 0.999 1552 (43.9) < 0.001 816 (51.3) < 0.001 1192 (36.4) 0.331 16,903 (38.2)
  Metformin 0 9645 (48.3) < 0.001 564 (26.1) 1854 (25.1) 0.347 2768 (19.7) < 0.001 2454 (20.1) < 0.001 1062 (30.0) < 0.001 562 (35.3) < 0.001 381 (11.6) < 0.001 9645 (21.8)
  Sulfonylurea 0 2260 (11.3) < 0.001 122 (5.7) 477 (6.5) 0.179 603 (4.3) 0.003 602 (4.9) 0.117 230 (6.5) 0.224 144 (9.0) < 0.001 82 (2.5) < 0.001 2260 (5.1)
  DPP4 inhibitors 0 7682 (38.4) < 0.001 323 (15.0) 1288 (17.4) < 0.001 2607 (18.5) < 0.001 2178 (17.8) < 0.001 556 (15.7) 0.478 298 (18.7) < 0.001 432 (13.2) < 0.001 7682 (17.4)
  SGLT-2 inhibitors 0 401 (2.0) < 0.001 23 (1.1) 44 (0.6) 0.015 82 (0.6) 0.008 57 (0.5) 0.001 135 (3.8) < 0.001 44 (2.8) < 0.001 16 (0.5) 0.012 401 (0.9)
  GLP-1 receptor agonists 0 695 (3.5) < 0.001 47 (2.2) 104 (1.4) 0.001 121 (0.9) 0.001 223 (1.8) 0.205 95 (2.7) 0.242 53 (3.3) 0.039 52 (1.6) 0.107 695 (1.6)
  Metiglinides 0 2992 (15.0) < 0.001 89 (4.1) 390 (5.3) < 0.001 1067 (7.6) < 0.001 955 (7.8) < 0.001 164 (4.6) 0.373 69 (4.3) 0.762 258 (7.9) < 0.001 2992 (6.8)
  Glitazones 0 259 (1.3) < 0.001 17 (0.8) 5 (0.1) 0.114 52 (0.4) 0.010 68 (0.6) 0.279 58 (1.6) 0.010 33 (2.1) 0.001 26 (0.8) 0.999 259 (0.6)
  Acarbose 0 314 (1.6) < 0.001 48 (2.2) 53 (0.7) < 0.001 36 (0.3) < 0.001 75 (0.6) 0.001 65 (1.8) 0.290 35 (2.2) 0.999 2 (0.1) < 0.001 314 (0.7)
  Insulin 218 (0.9) 4246 (21.2) < 0.001 155 (7.2) 719 (9.7) < 0.001 1411 (10.0) < 0.001 1256 (10.3) < 0.001 376 (10.6) < 0.001 213 (13.4) < 0.001 334 (10.2) < 0.001 4464 (10.1)
  Statins 11,160 (46.1) 12,798 (64.0) < 0.001 1140 (52.8) 4014 (54.3) 0.218 7734 (55.0) < 0.001 6685 (54.8) 0.006 1906 (53.9) 0.419 879 (55.2) < 0.001 1600 (48.9) < 0.001 23,958 (54.2)
  Warfarin 2849 (11.8) 3092 (15.5) < 0.001 189 (8.8) 921 (12.5) < 0.001 1972 (14.0) < 0.001 1728 (14.2) < 0.001 504 (14.2) < 0.001 205 (12.9) < 0.001 422 (12.9) < 0.001 5941 (13.4)
  Low dose aspirin 6045 (25.0) 5499 (27.5) < 0.001 446 (20.7) 1792 (24.3) < 0.001 3847 (27.4) < 0.001 3198 (26.2) < 0.001 1026 (29.0) < 0.001 445 (28.0) < 0.001 790 (24.1) < 0.001 11,544 (26.1)
  Receptor P2Y12 antagonists 872 (3.6) 1998 (10.0) < 0.001 110 (5.1) 469 (6.3) 0.039 774 (5.5) 0.446 919 (7.5) < 0.001 274 (7.7) < 0.001 171 (10.7) < 0.001 153 (4.7) 0.502 2870 (6.5)
  1. ACEi angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, ARNI angiotensin receptor and neprilysin inhibition, BMI body mass index, CCB Calcium channel blockers; CVD: cardiovascular disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, DPP4 dipeptidyl peptidase 4, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, a mL/min/1.73 m2, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1, PAD peripheral artery disease, RAAS renin angiotensin system, SBP systolic blood pressure, SGLT-2 sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2, UACR Urine albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio