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Table 1 Sample characteristics for the cohort with a mental illness and the general homeless cohort a

From: Factors associated with higher healthcare costs in a cohort of homeless adults with a mental illness and a general cohort of adults with a history of homelessness

Characteristics Cohort with a mental illness General homeless cohort Missing data
Total Sample (n = 525) Top 5% (n = 160) p-value b Total Sample (n = 655) Top 5% (n = 108) p-value b %
Predisposing Factors
Age       
  Mean ± SE 39.9 ± 11.8 40.0 ± 12.4 0.939 42.9 ± 10.5 44.1 ± 9.7 0.220  
  Median (IQR) 41 (30–48) 41 (30–48) 0.871 44 (36–50) 45 (38–50) 0.171  
Age Group       
  18–34 34.9% 34.4% 0.815 21.8% 16.7% 0.351  
  35–49 44.4% 46.3%   51.3% 53.7%   
  50+ 20.8% 19.4%   26.9% 29.6%   
Gender       
  Female 30.1% 32.5% 0.426 30.7% 38.9% 0.043  
  Male 69.9% 67.5%   69.3% 61.1%   
Marital status 2–3%
  Single, never married 69.5% 73.5% 0.20 60.6% 58.3% 0.474  
  Widowed, separated, divorced 27.5% 22.4%   28.0% 32.4%   
  Partnered, married 3.0% 4.1%   11.3% 9.3%   
Race 1–2%
  Black 32.4% 28.8% 0.133 12.0% 4.7% < 0.001  
  Other racialized groups 30.9% 28.1%   23.2% 14.4%   
  White 36.7% 43.1%   64.8% 80.9%   
Place of birth 1–2%
  Canada 55.0% 58.7% 0.288 81.8% 89.8% 0.018  
Education 2–3%
  Graduated high school 51.3% 56.4% 0.139 56.9% 50.9% 0.17  
Employment Status 2–3%
  Currently employed 4.2% <  3.8% 0.555 10.4% <  5.6% 0.032  
Housing status c       
  Precariously or vulnerably housed 7.4% 4.4% 0.08 50.1% 51.9% 0.686  
  Homeless 92.6% 95.6%   49.9% 48.1%   
Years spent homeless 4–5%
  Mean ± SE 5.21 ± 6.10 4.9 ± 6.0 0.509 5.32 ± 6.22 6.4 ± 6.9 0.049  
  Median (IQR) 3 (1–7) 3 (1–6) 0.329 3 (1–7) 4 (1–10) 0.097  
   ≥ 2 years spent homeless 61.7% 60.6% 0.734 58.6% 61.1% 0.566  
Criminal behaviour (Past 6 to 12 months) 39.2% 40.7% 0.663 37.1% 42.1% 0.242 1–2%
Victimization (Past 6 to 12 months) 35.1% 39.2% 0.21 37.2% 43.9% 0.116 2–3%
Diagnosed mental illness
 Psychotic disorder 43.0% 47.5% 0.173 13.3% 29.6% < 0.001  
 Other disorder 57.0% 52.5%   25.6% 31.5%   
 No disorder   61.1% 38.9%   
Problematic alcohol use (Past 12 months) 45.1% 41.3% 0.235 20.2% 27.8% 0.031
Problematic drug use (Past 12 months) 50.7% 43.1% 0.022 35.9% 52.8% < 0.001
Smoking status 2–3%
 Current, daily smoker 65.1% 59.1% 0.066 75.5% 76.6% 0.757  
Enabling Factors
Regular source of care
  Yes 66.7% 65.3% 0.664 59.2% 76.9% < 0.001 1–2%
Perceived barrier to care (Past 6 to 12 months) 40.2% 36.0% 0.211 35.2% 36.8% 0.703 2–3%
Food insecurity (not enough food) 51.8% 49.0% 0.416 32.2% 34.3% 0.609 1–2%
Acute mental health care (past 12 months)    < 0.001    < 0.001
  Hospital admission or emergency department visit 52.8% 77.5%   20.2% 50.0%   
Acute non-mental health care (past 12 months)    < 0.001    < 0.001
  Hospital admission or emergency department visit 62.1% 77.5%   47.0% 63.9%   
Need Factors
Perceived general health 1–2%
  Poor 19.2% 22.7% 0.209 13.1% 25.0% < 0.001  
  Fair 31.7% 26.7%   28.9% 30.6%   
  Good, very good, excellent 49.1% 50.7%   58.0% 44.4%   
Chronic conditions (administrative data)       
  Mean ± SE 0.59 ± 0.84 0.7 ± 0.9 0.005 0.57 ± 0.85 1.0 ± 1.1 < 0.001  
  Median (IQR) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0.008 0 (0–1) 1 (0–2) < 0.001  
Chronic conditions (survey data) 1–2%
 Mean ± SE 1.01 ± 1.28 1.1 ± 1.5 0.191 1.06 ± 1.25 1.6 ± 1.5 < 0.001  
 Median (IQR) 1 (0–1) 1 (0–2) 0.781 1 (0–2) 1 (0–3) < 0.001  
Any Missing Data d 15.4% 21.9% 0.004 7.9% 6.5% 0.54  
  1. aCost gradient cut-offs were applied based on the general Ontario population thresholds: Rosella et al. High-cost healthcare users in Ontario, Canada: demographic, socio-economic, and health status characteristics. BMC Health Serv Res, 2014; 14, 532.
  2. bChi-square tests, analysis of variance, and Kruskal Wallace tests were used to compare the top 5% of consumers to the bottom 95% of consumers (α = 0.05).
  3. cSmall cell sizes of < 6 were reported as the equivalent percent.
  4. dAny missing data does not include chronic conditions as administrative data was available