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Table 4 Treatments received in VHA during the 365-days after linkage among soldiers with persistent chronic paina (n = 54,309)

From: Predictors of Veterans Health Administration utilization and pain persistence among soldiers treated for postdeployment chronic pain in the Military Health System

  Any Chronic Pain Back & neck disorders Headaches & migraines Non-traumatic joint disorders Other musculoskeletal disorders Chronic pain by ICD definition b
(n = 54,309) (n = 31,732) (n = 14,053) (n = 18,854) (n = 17,034) (n = 6016)
Nonpharmacological treatments
 Any NPT 20,670 (38.1) 14,106 (44.5) 5901 (42.0) 8653 (45.7) 8445 (49.6) 2848 (47.3)
 Exercise therapy 14,607 (26.9) 9706 (30.6) 4251 (30.2) 6463 (34.1) 6079 (35.7) 2111 (35.1)
 Other physical therapy 10,571 (19.5) 7299 (23.0) 2981 (21.2) 4988 (26.3) 4682 (27.5) 1365 (22.7)
 Chiropractic care 2005 (3.7) 1805 (5.7) 595 (4.2) 631 (3.3) 1001 (5.9) 307 (5.1)
 TENS/electrical modulation 3848 (7.1) 3049 (9.6) 1282 (9.1) 1677 (8.8) 1769 (10.4) 552 (9.2)
 Massage 3796 (7.0) 2808 (8.9) 1211 (8.6) 1688 (8.9) 1992 (11.7) 521 (8.7)
 Superficial heat treatment 3672 (6.8) 2661 (8.4) 1157 (8.2) 1798 (9.5) 1960 (11.5) 479 (8.0)
Opioids
 Any opioid prescription 22,253 (41.0) 13,364 (42.1) 5084 (36.2) 7916 (41.8) 7423 (43.6) 3008 (50.0)
  > 30-day supply 20,291 (37.4) 12,175 (38.4) 4641 (33.0) 7168 (37.8) 6760 (39.7) 2812 (46.7)
  1. Notes: ‘Linkage to VHA’ was defined as enrolled and utilized VHA services after separating from the military. Chronic pain was determined based on the soldiers’ first year of utilization after linking to VHA and categories are not mutually exclusive. The sample includes soldiers who met criteria for chronic pain during the first 365 days in the VHA (i.e., persistent chronic pain)
  2. Abbreviations: VHA Veterans Health Administration, ICD International Classification of Diseases, NPT Nonpharmacological Treatment, TENS Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation
  3. a Chronic pain categories not as common, and nonpharmacological treatment modalities with less than 4% utilization, are shown in Additional File 1
  4. b Includes ICD-9 diagnosis codes 338.2 (chronic pain) and 338.4 (chronic pain syndrome) and ICD-10 diagnosis codes G89.2 (chronic pain) and G89.4 (chronic pain syndrome)