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Table 3 Indicators of need-based financial resource allocation in health systems worldwide

From: A review of appropriate indicators for need-based financial resource allocation in health systems

Country Macro indicators of financial resource allocation Micro indicators of financial resource allocation
Alberta, Canada [9, 10, 20,21,22] Age; Sex; Ethnicity; Welfare status Remoteness; Cross-boundary flows;
Funding loss protection; Cost variations
Belgium [20, 22] Age; Sex; Disability; Unemployment Urbanization; Mortality
England [9, 11, 20, 22,23,24,25,26,27] Age (Sex); Additional Need Market Forces Factor (staff, land & building costs); Unmet Need; Growth Area Adjustment (rurality, scale economies & case-mix factors)
Finland [20, 22] Age; Disability Archipelago; Remoteness; Tax base
France [20, 22] Age Phased implementation
Germany [20, 22, 28] Age; Sex; Invalidity; Morbidity; Sick pay Income base
Israel [20, 22] Age
Italy [20, 22] Age; Sex Mortality; Damping mechanism
Kenya [29, 30] Infrastructure; Under-5 population;
Poverty rate; AIDS cases;
Females of reproductive age (15 to 49);
Area of district (sq. km.)
Malawi [31] population size;
asset indices
Mozambique [8] population size;
demographic composition;
infant mortality
population density
Namibia [8, 32,33,34] population size (weighted by the demographic composition);
deprivation index
mortality levels
Netherlands [20, 22, 24, 28] Age-Sex; Source of Income; Region;
Welfare/Disability status;
Pharmacy Cost Groups;
Diagnosis Cost Groups
Retrospective Adjustments;
Income base
New South Wales, Australia [9, 20,21,22, 24, 27] Age; Sex; Health Needs Index (HNI);
Unavoidable Costs; Unmet need;
Indigenous Weight; Homelessness
Teaching and Research; Geographical Adjustment; State-wide Services;
Cross-boundary flows;
New Zealand [9, 20,21,22, 24, 27] Age; Sex; Deprivation (Welfare status);
Rurality; Unmet Need; Overseas Visitors;
Phased implementation
Northern Ireland [22, 27] Age; Sex Mortality; Elderly living alone; Welfare status;
Low birth weight; Rural costs adjustment
Norway [20, 22] Age; Sex; Marital status Mortality; Elderly living alone; Tax base
Ontario, Canada [24, 35] Age; Refined Clinical Group;
Socioeconomic Status; Rurality
Market Share; Unit Costs; Population Growth
Scotland [9, 20, 22, 24, 27, 36] Age- Sex; Morbidity and Life Circumstances; Unmet Need Excess Costs (Remoteness/Rural Cost …)
South Africa [11, 30, 32] population size; deprivation index
Spain [20, 22] Cross-boundary flows;
Declining population adjustment
Stockholm, Sweden [9, 11, 20,21,22, 24, 27, 28, 37, 38] Age;
Cohabitation and marital status;
Housing Tenure;
Educational Level;
Employment Status;
Costly Diagnosis Groups;
Phased implementation
Switzerland [9, 20] Age; Sex; Region Income base
Tanzania [8, 30, 39] population size (Age/Sex);
under 5 mortality rate;
poverty level
Uganda [11, 40] population (age-sex);
Human Development Index;
per capita donor and NGO spending
security situation
USA [20,21,22] Age; Sex; Disability; Welfare
status; Previous in-patient
diagnosis; county of residence
Wales [20, 22, 27] Age/Sex;
Standardized mortality ratio;
Additional Need
Extra Costs (Road length, Mean travel
Zambia [8, 31] population size;
deprivation index
burden of disease
Zimbabwe [8, 31] population size;
socio-economic status
morbidity and mortality rates;
service coverage