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Table 3 Results of the cost-effectiveness analyses: REALISE study

From: The statistical approach in trial-based economic evaluations matters: get your statistics together!

Analysis Societal costs difference (€) (95% CI) QALY difference (95% CI) ICER (€/ QALY gained)
1.- Two t-tests (1 for cost; 1 for effects) complete-case analysis −782 (− 4332 to 2768) −0.001 (− 0.070 to 0.0677) 636,744
2.- Two bootstrapped t-tests; complete-case analysis −782 (− 4850 to 2544) − 0.001 (− 0.070 to 0.0677) 636,744
3.- Two regressions with correction for confounders; complete-case analysis −197 (− 3692 to 3297) − 0.009 (− 0.077 to 0.058) 21,390
4.- Two bootstrapped regressions with correction for confounders; complete-case analysis −197 (− 3643 to 2832) − 0.009 (− 0.077 to 0.058) 21,390
5.- Two t-tests; mean imputation − 840 (− 3382 to 1701) 0.004 (− 0.049 to 0.057) − 231,148
6.- Two bootstrapped t-tests; mean imputation −840 (− 3467 to 1693) 0.004 (− 0.049 to 0.056) −231,148
7.- Two regressions with correction for confounders; mean imputation − 707 (− 3197 to 1783) 0.005 (− 0.047 to 0.057) − 145,697
8.- Two bootstrapped regressions with correction for confounders; mean imputation −707 (− 3221 to 1636) 0.005 (− 0.047 to 0.057) − 231,148
9.- Two t-tests; MI −141 (− 2318 to 2035) 0.009 (− 0.053 to 0.071) −16,425
10.- Two bootstrapped t-tests; MI −141 (− 2398 to 1908) 0.009 (−0.053 to 0.071) − 16,425
11.- Two regressions with correction for confounders; MI −73 (− 2295 to 1073) 0.011 (− 0.050 to 0.071) − 6880
12.- Two bootstrapped regressions with correction for confounders; MI −73 (− 2248 to 1942) 0.011 (− 0.050 to 0.071) −6880
13.- SUR without correction for confounders; MI −141 (− 849 to 1164) 0.009 (− 0.056 to 0.072) −16,425
14.- SUR with correction for confounders; MI −82 (− 892 to 1586) 0.011 (− 0.058 to 0.079) −7502
  1. 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval, ICER Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio, MI Multiple Imputation, SUR Seemingly Unrelated Regression, QALY Quality Adjusted Life-year