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Table 2 Statistical approaches summarized according to the statistical challenge handled

From: The statistical approach in trial-based economic evaluations matters: get your statistics together!

Analysis Baseline imbalances Skewed costs Correlated costs and effects Missing data
1.- Two t-tests (1 for costs; 1 for effects) complete-case analysis
2.- Two bootstrapped t-tests; complete-case analysis
3.- Two regressions with correction for confounders; complete-case analysis
4.- Two bootstrapped regressions with correction for confounders; complete-case analysis
5.- Two t-tests; mean imputation
6.- Two bootstrapped t-tests; mean imputation
7.- Two regressions with correction for confounders; mean imputation
8.- Two bootstrapped regressions with correction for confounders; mean imputation
9.- Two t-tests; MI
10.- Two bootstrapped t-tests; MI
11.- Two regressions without correction for confounders; MI
12.- Two bootstrapped regression with correction for confounders; MI
13.- SUR without correction for confounders; MI
14.- SUR with correction for confounders; MI
  1. MI Multiple Imputation, SUR Seemingly Unrelated Regression
  2. ✗ - Not accounted for in the analysis
  3. - Accounted for in the analysis