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Table 4 Process and outcome indicators at baseline and 1-year follow-up

From: Evaluation and pilot implementation of essential interventions for the management of hypertension and prevention of cardiovascular diseases in primary health care in the Republic of Tajikistan

Process and outcome indicators Baseline Follow-up Baseline vs. Follow-up Differencea Interactionb
  % (n/N) % (n/N) OR (95 % CI) P-value P-value
Intervention
  Process indicators
    Smoking status recorded 61.5 (160/260) 90.4 (338/374) 14.397 (7.987–25.886) < 0.001 < 0.001
    BP measured regularly 25.0 (65/260) 71.4 (267/374) 10.013 (6.642–15.094) < 0.001 < 0.001
    Fasting glucose tested 13.1 (34/260) 16.3 (61/374) 1.393 (0.860–2.255) 0.178 0.800
    Total cholesterol tested 8.1 (21/260) 12.3 (46/374) 1.781 (1.002–3.165) 0.049 0.423
    WHO/ISH risk score documented 0.0 (0/259) 79.7 (295/370) - - -
    WHO/ISH risk score calculatable 96.1 (249/259) 99.7 (369/370) 13.805 (1.692-112.649) 0.014 0.004
    High-risk patients 26.5 (69/260) 15.0 (56/374) 0.491 (0.311–0.775) 0.002 0.216
    BP lowering drug prescribed 96.5 (251/260) 97.1 (363/374) 1.568 (0.596–4.124) 0.362 0.910
    Statin prescribed for high-risk patients 23.2 (16/69) 78.6 (44/56) 12.640 (4.365–36.599) < 0.001 0.001
    Aspirin prescribed for high-risk patients 85.5 (59/69) 87.5 (49/56) 0.368 (0.091–1.493) 0.162 0.213
    Triple therapy prescribed for high-risk patients 23.2 (16/69) 76.8 (43/56) 11.699 (3.947–34.679) < 0.001 0.001
  Outcome indicators
    BP at normal range 14.8 (34/229) 32.5 (118/363) 3.556 (2.219–5.696) < 0.001 < 0.001
    High-risk patients with BP at normal range 15.8 (9/57) 20.4 (11/54) 1.717 (0.572–5.158) 0.335 0.133
    Low-risk patients with BP at normal range 14.5 (25/172) 34.6 (107/309) 4.235 (2.438–7.358) < 0.001 0.002
Control
  Process indicators
    Smoking status recorded 73.4 (152/207) 68.0 (166/244) 0.395 (0.210–0.743) 0.004  
    BP measured regularly 62.3 (129/207) 68.9 (168/244) 1.319 (0.849–2.049) 0.218  
    Fasting glucose tested 22.7 (47/207) 30.7 (75/244) 1.554 (0.959–2.519) 0.074  
    Total cholesterol tested 12.1 (25/207) 15.2 (37/244) 1.257 (0.681–2.321) 0.464  
    WHO/ISH risk score documented 0.0 (0/203) 0.4 (1/242) - -  
    WHO/ISH risk score calculatable 99.5 (202/203) 98.3 (238/242) 0.185 (0.015–2.328) 0.192  
    High-risk patients 46.9 (97/207) 41.8 (102/244) 0.720 (0.479–1.082) 0.114  
    BP lowering drug prescribed 94.7 (196/207) 95.9 (234/244) 1.458 (0.586–3.628) 0.418  
    Statin prescribed for high-risk patients 13.4 (13/97) 15.7 (16/102) 1.610 (0.529–4.903) 0.402  
    Aspirin prescribed for high-risk patients 89.7 (87/97) 92.2 (94/102) 1.437 (0.421–4.903) 0.562  
    Triple therapy prescribed for high-risk patients 13.4 (13/97) 15.7 (16/102) 1.610 (0.529–4.903) 0.402  
  Outcome indicators
    BP at normal range 17.8 (36/202) 13.2 (31/234) 0.644 (0.370–1.121) 0.120  
    High-risk patients with BP at normal range 22.1 (21/95) 13.0 (13/100) 0.571 (0.235–1.389) 0.216  
    Low-risk patients with BP at normal range 14.2 (15/107) 13.4 (18/134) 0.877 (0.399–1.926) 0.744  
  1. BP blood pressure, WHO/ISH risk score World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension cardiovascular risk score; OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval.
  2. a Adjusted for age, gender, and clinic
  3. b Interaction for intervention and control clinics adjusted for age, gender, and clinic