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Table 5 Standardized coefficients obtained from Structural Equation Models (SEMs) comparing professionals who worked with patients during a period when restrictions were tight with those who did not adjusted for baseline characteristics

From: Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental health personnel in Norway

Characteristics Instability Infection Loss of control Concerns
β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Worked clinically with patients (ref: No)
 Yes −0.01 (− 0.06, 0.09) − 0.004 (− 0.06, 0.05) 0.03 (− 0.03, 0.09) 0.04 (− 0.01, 0.10)
Gender (ref: Male)
 Female 0.06 (0.004, 0.12) * 0.11 (0.06, 0.17)** − 0.01 (− 0.07, 0.05) 0.07 (0.01, 0.12)*
Work experience years (ref: 0–9)
  ≥ 10 − 0.13 (− 0.18, − 0.07)** − 0.07 (− 0.12, − 0.02)** 0.002 (− 0.05, 0.06) − 0.12 (− 0.17, − 0.07)**
Profession (ref: Dentist)
 Dental hygienist 0.01 (− 0.06, 0.09) − 0.02 (− 0.08, 0.04) 0.04 (− 0.02, 0.10) 0.02 (− 0.04, 0.08)
 Dental Assistant 0.002 (− 0.07, 0.08) −0.01 (− 0.07, 0.05) −0.01 (− 0.07, 0.05) −0.04 (− 0.10, 0.02)
Size of dental clinic (ref: <  7)
  ≥ 7 0.05 (− 0.02, 0.11) 0.03 (− 0.02, 0.08) − 0.04 (− 0.10, 0.01) 0.05 (− 0.01, 0.12)
Work sector (ref: Public)
 Private 0.06 (0.003, 0.12)* − 0.01 (− 0.07, 0.05) − 0.03 (− 0.10, 0.03) 0.06 (− 0.001, 0.12)
County incidence of COVID-19 (ref: Low)
 Medium 0.04 (− 0.02, 0.10) 0.01 (− 0.04, 0.07) − 0.01 (− 0.07, 0.05) 0.06 (0.003, 0.12)*
 High 0.04 (− 0.01, 0.10) 0.02 (− 0.04, 0.08) − 0.04 (− 0.11, 0.02) 0.01 (− 0.05, 0.07)
Treatment of patients suspected or confirmed to have COVID-19 (ref: Yes)
 No 0.05 (− 0.01, 0.10) 0.05 (− 0.01, 0.10) − 0.06 (− 0.12, − 0.01)* 0.03 (− 0.02, 0.08)
Adequate equipment (ref: Other)
 Agree/ completely agree −0.11 (− 0.17, − 0.05)** −0.13 (− 0.19, − 0.07)** 0.15 (0.09, 0.21)** −0.12 (− 0.18, − 0.06)**
Current situation (ref: Other)
 Agree/ completely agree − 0.12 (− 0.18, − 0.07)** −0.09 (− 0.14, − 0.03)** 0.09 (0.03, 0.15)** −0.24 (− 0.54, 0.05)**
Escalation (ref: Other)
 Agree/ completely agree −0.17 (− 0.23, − 0.11)** −0.17 (− 0.23, − 0.11)** 0.15 (0.10, 0.21)** −0.14 (− 0.19, − 0.08)**
  1. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 differences between dental professionals working and not working clinically with patients in the lockdown period