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Table 3 Visit Geographya

From: First Nations emergency care in Alberta: descriptive results of a retrospective cohort study

Variable FN
n = 1,099,424
Non-FN
n = 10,586,863
Drive time from patient postal code to nearest Emergency Department (minutes)
 Mean (SD) 17.8 (25.2) 9.9 (9.6)
 Median [IQR] 9.0 [3, 23] 7.0 [3, 13]
 Missing 44,378   425,628  
Drive distance from patient postal code to Emergency Department (km)
 Mean (SD) 19.0 (32.1) 7.6 (11.1)
 Median [IQR] 6.0 [1, 24] 4.0 [2, 8]
 Missing 44,378   425,628  
Urban / Rural Continuum (Patient Address) n %
 Metro (population > 500,000) 178,715 16.3 3,673,570 34.7
 Moderate Metro Influence (immediately surrounding Metro Centres) 49,293 4.5 1,338,763 12.6
 Urban (Population > 25,000 but less than > 500,000) 66,115 6.0 1,064,243 10.1
 Moderate Urban Influence (surrounding urban centres) 5717 0.5 198,378 1.9
 Rural Centre Area (> 10,000 to less than < 25,000) 150,974 13.7 538,840 5.1
 Rural (population less than 10,000 and up to 200 km from a Metro or Urban Centre) 377,692 34.4 2,888,163 27.3
 Rural Remote (>  200 km from a Metro or Urban Centre) 234,735 21.4 471,716 4.5
 Missing 36,183 3.3 413,190 3.9
Patient Address Area - AHS Zone n %
 North 509,990 46.4 2,195,754 20.7
 Edmonton 174,515 15.9 2,455,812 23.2
 Central 156,924 14.3 1,639,139 15.5
 Calgary 143,377 13 3,106,590 29.3
 South 108,277 9.8 862,415 8.1
 Missing 6341 0.6 327,153 3.1
Facility Type n %
 Tertiary Referral 124,221 11.3 1,598,194 15.1
 Regional Referral 183,055 16.7 3,152,477 29.8
 Community Hospital providing 5 services with < 5000 Inpatient Discharges per year 357,147 32.5 2,132,601 20.1
 Community Hospital providing 3 to 4 services – or providing Emergency and Inpatient with > 600 emergency inpatient discharges per year. 226,897 20.6 1,437,449 13.6
 Community Hospital providing Emergency and Inpatient Services with < 600 inpatient discharges per year. 131,703 12.0 804,591 7.6
 Community Ambulatory Moderate > = 20,000 visits per year 21,337 1.9 356,555 3.4
 Community Ambulatory < 20,000 visits per year 19,102 1.7 158,719 1.5
 Urgent Care Centre 35,962 3.3 946,277 8.9
  1. FN First Nations, non-FN non-First Nations, ED Emergency Department, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, AHS Alberta Health Services
  2. aAll difference between FN and non-FN are significant at the p = < 0.001 level