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Table 3 Univariate logistic regression model for impact on caregivers, stratified by caregiving intensity level

From: The impacts of caregiving intensity on informal caregivers in Malaysia: findings from a national survey

Factor Low intensity level of care High intensity level of care
Affect health Affect daily activitiesd Affect social activities Affect health Affect daily activitiesd Affect social activities
Crude OR
(95% CI)
p-value Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Crude OR
(95% CI)
p-value Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Crude OR (95% CI) p-value
Demographic, socioeconomic and health
Sex
  Male 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
  Female 4.28 (1.61–11.38) 0.004 2.20 (1.08–4.51) 0.031 2.25 (0.95–5.32) 0.065 2.49 (0.86–7.20) 0.092 1.15 (0.51–2.61) 0.733 1.76 (0.71–4.41) 0.224
Ethnicity
  Malaya 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
  Non-Malay 1.48 (0.64–3.38) 0.356 3.12 (1.45–6.72) 0.004 1.65 (0.73–3.75) 0.232 0.71 (0.28–1.78) 0.461 1.47 (0.61–3.57) 0.391 2.30 (0.85–6.21) 0.100
Age (years)
  18–34 0.73 (0.18–3.01) 0.661 0.33 (0.08–1.26) 0.103 0.63 (0.20–1.94) 0.418 0.43 (0.13–1.47) 0.177 1.98 (0.63–6.17) 0.241 1.19 (0.37–3.84) 0.772
  35–59 1.59 (0.64–3.97) 0.320 0.63 (0.19–2.01) 0.430 1.00 (0.40–2.48) 1.000 0.31 (0.12–0.80) 0.015 1.23 (0.52–2.89) 0.634 0.65 (0.26–1.65) 0.364
  60+ 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Educational level
  No formal 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
  Primary 0.83 (0.13–5.21) 0.845 2.57 (0.65–10.21) 0.180 0.95 (0.19–4.81) 0.952 1.25 (0.10–16.28) 0.864 1.14 (0.12–10.44) 0.908 1.42 (0.11–18.48) 0.790
  Secondary 0.38 (0.08–1.74) 0.213 1.26 (0.35–4.57) 0.722 0.41 (0.11–1.54) 0.184 1.34 (0.12–15.30) 0.811 1.79 (0.21–15.27) 0.595 3.64 (0.31–42.30) 0.300
  Tertiary 0.23 (0.04–1.43) 0.114 0.87 (0.18–4.19) 0.863 0.50 (0.11–2.28) 0.371 2.96 (0.24–36.53) 0.396 1.32 (0.14–12.18) 0.807 3.97 (0.31–50.20) 0.286
Marital status
  Married 2.82 (0.94–8.44) 0.064 0.84 (0.30–2.31) 0.732 1.32 (0.59–2.94) 0.500 0.51 (0.20–1.32) 0.163 0.84 (0.37–1.89) 0.666 0.69 (0.28–1.66) 0.405
  Not married (divorced, separated or never married) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Employment status
  Active 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
  Inactive 1.41 (0.60–3.28) 0.427 2.10 (0.88–5.03) 0.096 2.05 (0.93–4.49) 0.074 1.40 (0.58–3.40) 0.457 0.78 (0.35–1.78) 0.561 0.86 (0.37–1.99) 0.718
Incomeb
  Low 2.28 (0.60–8.70) 0.228 1.45 (0.35–6.06) 0.613 1.62 (0.49–5.40) 0.427 0.79 (0.16–4.00) 0.778 1.13 (0.26–4.92) 0.867 1.05 (0.29–3.82) 0.938
  Middle 0.74 (0.19–2.86) 0.667 1.41 (0.33–6.07) 0.644 0.89 (0.27–2.97) 0.853 0.79 (0.16–3.79) 0.766 1.32 (0.33–5.25) 0.688 0.69 (0.19–2.50) 0.576
  High 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Location
  Urban 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
  Rural 1.02 (0.46–2.26) 0.964 0.82 (0.39–1.74) 0.611 0.80 (0.36–1.78) 0.592 0.74 (0.26–2.12) 0.574 0.65 (0.29–1.50) 0.316 0.36 (0.14–0.88) 0.026
Self-reported health problems
  Yes 1.54 (0.65–3.63) 0.324 1.29 (0.48–3.44) 0.611 1.14 (0.52–2.51) 0.742 1.96 (0.78–4.88) 0.150 1.03 (0.42–2.54) 0.950 0.78 (0.29–2.07) 0.618
  No 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Long-term conditionc
  Yes 2.52 (1.08–5.87) 0.032 1.36 (0.59–3.13) 0.466 1.43 (0.63–3.29) 0.394 1.98 (0.79–4.98) 0.145 1.10 (0.47–2.55) 0.828 0.77 (0.30–1.96) 0.587
  No 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Self-rated health
  Excellent - Good 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
  Fair - Very Poor 1.36 (0.52–3.54) 0.525 1.13 (0.49–2.58) 0.778 1.80 (0.74–4.33) 0.192 2.28 (0.92–5.66) 0.074 1.13 (0.48–2.67) 0.779 0.90 (0.34–2.37) 0.834
Caregiving-related
Living in the same household
  Yes 1.09 (0.25–4.76) 0.905 0.67 (0.25–1.78) 0.416 0.65 (0.20–2.04) 0.457 0.80 (0.21–3.03) 0.739 1.52 (0.44–5.27) 0.511 7.32 (1.19–45.22) 0.032
  No 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Receive training
  Yes 1.55 (0.59–4.08) 0.370 1.60 (0.56–4.56) 0.381 1.26 (0.51–3.14) 0.613 3.12 (1.27–7.64) 0.013 1.80 (0.69–4.65) 0.227 3.16 (1.17–8.54) 0.024
  No 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Has assistance
  Yes 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
  No 1.70 (0.64–4.55) 0.286 2.20 (0.78–6.20) 0.135 1.35 (0.51–3.57) 0.538 2.78 (1.06–7.26) 0.037 2.65 (1.04–6.78) 0.042 2.41 (0.88–6.62) 0.088
Duration of providing care (years)
  Less than 2 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
  2 and more 2.92 (1.37–6.24) 0.006 0.85 (0.36–2.02) 0.711 1.23 (0.57–2.67) 0.603 0.66 (0.27–1.63) 0.369 1.46 (0.62–3.40) 0.378 2.89 (1.16–7.18) 0.023
  1. CI Confidence Interval, OR Odds Ratio, ref. reference category
  2. a Malay includes Orang Asli
  3. b Low income (comprised of those from quintile one and two), Middle income (comprised of those from quintile three and four), High income (comprised of those from the highest quintile)
  4. c Long-term condition refers to presence of any non-communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension or hypercholesterolemia)
  5. d Daily activities refers to daily, work or school activities