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Table 3 Regressions on Length of Stay (N = 26,505)

From: Statistical models for analyzing count data: predictors of length of stay among HIV patients in Portugal using a multilevel model

  Linear Regression
(OLS)
Negative Binomial Regression Poisson Regression Zero-inflated Poisson Regression Zero-inflated Negative Binomial Random-effects Model
Gender
 Male (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Female −1.21*** (0.28) −0.07*** (0.01) − 0.07*** (0.00) − 0.07*** (0.00) − 0.08*** (0.01) − 0.07*** (0.01)
Age
 18–29 (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 30–39 0.06 (0.58) 0.00 (0.03) − 0.00 (0.01) 0.00 (0.01) 0.01 (0.03) −0.02 (0.03)
 40–49 0.66 (0.57) 0.05* (0.02) 0.03*** (0.01) 0.03*** (0.01) 0.05** (0.02) 0.02 (0.03)
 50–59 −0.01 (0.60) 0.01 (0.03) −0.00 (0.01) − 0.00 (0.01) 0.01 (0.03) − 0.00 (0.03)
 60–69 −1.07 (0.68) − 0.03 (0.03) − 0.07*** (0.01) − 0.07*** (0.01) − 0.03 (0.03) −0.04 (0.04)
  > =70 −1.64* (0.76) − 0.06* (0.03) − 0.09*** (0.01) − 0.08*** (0.01) −0.05* (0.03) − 0.07* (0.04)
Region of residence (NUTS II)
 Non resident (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Norte −5.55*** (1.09) −0.35*** (0.05) −0.30*** (0.01) − 0.30*** (0.01) −0.35*** (0.05) − 0.34*** (0.07)
 Centro −1.68 (1.12) −0.13*** (0.05) − 0.09*** (0.01) −0.11*** (0.01) − 0.14*** (0.05) −0.28*** (0.07)
 Lisbon −2.50* (1.07) −0.17*** (0.05) −0.13*** (0.01) − 0.13*** (0.01) −0.18*** (0.05) − 0.20*** (0.06)
 Alentejo −0.16 (1.53) − 0.09 (0.07) 0.00 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02) −0.10 (0.07) − 0.15 (0.11)
 Algarve 3.31** (1.19) 0.15*** (0.05) 0.20*** (0.01) 0.19*** (0.01) 0.14*** (0.05) −0.06 (0.11)
Years after economic crisis
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes −1.63*** (0.27) −0.07*** (0.01) −0.09*** (0.00) − 0.09*** (0.00) −0.07*** (0.01) − 0.06*** (0.01)
Having SNSa
 Yes (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 No −0.20 (0.74) 0.02 (0.03) −0.00 (0.01) − 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.03) 0.03 (0.04)
HIV as a primary diagnosis
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes −0.44 (0.30) − 0.05*** (0.01) − 0.04*** (0.00) − 0.04*** (0.00) − 0.05*** (0.01) − 0.04** (0.02)
Asymptomatic HIV
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes −3.88*** (0.54) −0.28*** (0.02) −0.28*** (0.01) − 0.25*** (0.01) −0.27*** (0.02) − 0.27*** (0.03)
Hepatitis B
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes 0.19 (0.61) 0.01 (0.03) −0.00 (0.01) 0.00 (0.01) 0.01 (0.03) 0.03 (0.03)
Hepatitis C
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes −2.74*** (0.30) −0.16*** (0.01) −0.16*** (0.00) − 0.15*** (0.00) −0.16*** (0.01) − 0.15*** (0.02)
Associated TB infection
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes 9.40*** (0.48) 0.50*** (0.02) 0.43*** (0.00) 0.43*** (0.00) 0.50*** (0.02) 0.52*** (0.02)
Pneumocystis
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes 1.28* (0.50) 0.11*** (0.02) 0.06*** (0.01) 0.06*** (0.01) 0.10*** (0.02) 0.08*** (0.03)
Cytomegalovirus
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes 10.96*** (0.80) 0.34*** (0.03) 0.32*** (0.01) 0.32*** (0.01) 0.34*** (0.03) 0.31*** (0.04)
Mycobacterium disease
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes 2.21*** (0.50) 0.09*** (0.02) 0.10*** (0.01) 0.10*** (0.01) 0.09*** (0.02) 0.07*** (0.03)
Candidiasis
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes 4.81*** (0.35) 0.22*** (0.01) 0.20*** (0.00) 0.20*** (0.00) 0.22*** (0.01) 0.19*** (0.02)
Toxoplasmosis
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes 10.31*** (0.58) 0.46*** (0.02) 0.40*** (0.01) 0.39*** (0.01) 0.46*** (0.02) 0.45*** (0.03)
Kaposi Sarcoma
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes 0.31 (0.66) −0.01 (0.03) 0.00 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) −0.01 (0.03) −0.02 (0.03)
Recurrent Pneumonia
 No (Ref) - (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes 7.90*** (1.49) −0.44*** (0.07) − 0.46*** (0.02) − 0.47*** (0.02) −0.44*** (0.07) − 0.46*** (0.08)
Weight loss
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes −3.21*** (0.70) −0.15*** (0.03) −0.15*** (0.01) − 0.15*** (0.01) −0.15*** (0.03) − 0.12*** (0.04)
Number of diagnosis
  < =5 (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 6–7 2.54*** (0.35) 0.19*** (0.02) 0.19*** (0.00) 0.17*** (0.00) 0.18*** (0.02) 0.19*** (0.02)
 8–10 5.17 (0.36) 0.35*** (0.02) 0.34*** (0.00) 0.32*** (0.00) 0.34*** (0.02) 0.36*** (0.02)
  > 10 10.47 (0.40) 0.55*** (0.02) 0.56*** (0.00) 0.54*** (0.00) 0.54*** (0.02) 0.55*** (0.02)
Number of procedures
  < =5 (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 6–8 2.54*** (0.34 0.27*** (0.01) 0.25*** (0.00) 0.21*** (0.00) 0.25*** (0.01) 0.34*** (0.02)
 9–11 5.36*** (0.37 0.45*** (0.02) 0.44*** (0.01) 0.39*** (0.01) 0.44*** (0.02) 0.54*** (0.02)
  > 11 14.37*** (0.39 0.82*** (0.02) 0.79*** (0.00) 0.74*** (0.00) 0.80*** (0.02) 0.94*** (0.02)
Emergency Admission
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes −0.76* (0.34) −0.01 (0.01) −0.05*** (0.00) −0.06*** (0.00) −0.02 (0.01) 0.02 (0.02)
30-day Readmission
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes −1.41*** (0.39) −0.03** (0.02) −0.07*** (0.00) − 0.06*** (0.00) −0.03* (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02)
Type of intervention
 Medical (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Surgical 9.67*** (0.54) 0.34*** (0.02) 0.41*** (0.01) 0.41*** (0.01) 0.36*** (0.02) 0.32*** (0.03)
Mode of transfer
 No transfer (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Transferred b −6.63*** (0.57) −0.32*** (0.02) −0.35*** (0.01) −0.33*** (0.01) − 0.32*** (0.02) −0.35*** (0.04)
Destination after discharge
 Home (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Another health service c 6.31*** (0.68) 0.20*** (0.03) 0.30*** (0.01) 0.34*** (0.01) 0.21*** (0.03) 0.22*** (0.04)
 Exit against medical advice −4.73*** (0.63) −0.44*** (0.03) −0.42*** (0.01) −0.35*** (0.01) − 0.43*** (0.03) −0.43*** (0.03)
 In hospital death −0.70 (0.39) −0.07*** (0.02) − 0.05*** (0.00) 0.01** (0.00) − 0.06*** (0.02) −0.11*** (0.02)
Merged hospitals
 No (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref) (Ref)
 Yes −3.29*** (0.31) −0.19*** (0.01) −0.17*** (0.00) − 0.17*** (0.00) −0.19*** (0.01) − 0.09 (0.09)
Constant 13.33 (1.37) 2.43*** (0.06) 2.47*** (0.02) 2.54*** (0.02) 2.46*** (0.06) 2.38*** (0.09)
Observations 26,505 26,505 26,505 26,505 26,505 26,505
Number of groups       54
  1. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. NUTS II Nomenclatura de Unidades Territoriais para Fins Estatísticos, nível II (Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics, 2 level); R.A. Região Autónoma (Autonomous Region)
  3. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1
  4. a National Health Insurance
  5. b transfer for conducting exams or follow up or lack of resources or treatment of associated condition
  6. c special service includes Home service, Specialized aftercare, Palliative care, long-term hospital care