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Table 3 Associations between characteristics of informal caregivers and psychosocial burdens during COVID-19 and involvement of informal caregivers

From: Informal caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic perceive additional burden: findings from an ad-hoc survey in Germany

  Logistic Regression Multiple Regression
Primary Stressors Main Caregivera High expenditure of timeb High level of carec Dementiad No professional helpe Number of involvement indicators metf
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Background & Context
Age 1.04 (1.02–1.06)*** 1.07 (1.05–1.09)*** 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 1.01 (1.00–1.03) 0.99 (0.98–1.01) .18 (0.10–0.25)***
Gender
  men 0.81 (0.61–1.09) 0.97 (0.67–1.40) 1.20 (0.91–1.58) 1.23 (0.92–1.65) 0.77 (0.58–1.01) −.01 (−.08–.07)
Education Level
  low 0.91 (0.57–1.45) 1.36 (0.80–2.30) 0.90 (0.58–1.40) 0.91 (0.57–1.47) 1.03 (0.66–1.61) .01 (−.07–.09)
  medium 0.86 (0.63–1.17) 0.71 (0.47–1.08) 0.74 (0.55–0.99)* 1.04 (0.76–1.43) 1.06 (0.78–1.43) −.04 (−.12–.04)
  high 1 1 1 1 1 1
Secondary Stressors
Change in care situation
  much/somewhat better 1 1 1 1 1 1
  no change 1.02 (0.47–2.22) 0.78 (0.27–1.87) 0.86 (0.40–1.83) 1.21 (0.50–2.91) 1.87 (0.87–4.04) .04 (−.12–.21)
  somewhat/much worse 1.36 (0.59–3.11) 0.83 (0.29–2.33) 0.90 (0.40–1.99) 1.63 (0.65–4.10) 1.93 (0.85–4.40) .11 (−.06–.28)
Concerns/Excessive demands 1.04 (0.98–1.09) 1.06 (0.99–1.13) 1.10 (1.01–1.11)* 1.06 (1.00–1.12)* 0.97 (0.92–1.02) .10 (.00–.19)*
Intermediating Factors
Problems with implementation of COVID-19 measures 0.99 (0.92–1.08) 1.10 (0.99–1.22) 1.11 (1.03–1.20)** 1.06 (1.02–1.20)* 1.01 (0.94–1.10) .11 (.04–.19)**
Loss of support 0.97 (0.91–1.03) 0.99 (0.91–1.08) 1.09 (1.02–1.16)* 1.06 (0.99–1.13) 0.76 (0.71–0.82)*** −.08 (−.16–.00)*
Problems with provision, comprehension & practicability of COVID-19 information 0.95 (0.78–1.16) 0.93 (0.71–1.21) 0.84 (0.68–1.01) 1.01 (0.83–1.24) 1.02 (0.83–1.24) −.06 (−.13–.02)
Stress Outcomes
Negative feelings 1.00 (0.90–1.11) 1.07 (0.93–1.23) 0.95 (0.86–1.05) 1.06 (0.95–1.18) 0.98 (0.86–1.09) .02 (−.07–.10)
Caregiving by myself
  decreased 1 1 1 1 1 1
  almost no change 2.22 (1.42–3.49)*** 5.45 (1.89–15.73)** 0.97 (0.62–1.51) 1.25 (0.77–2.02) 0.99 (0.63–1.57) .18 (.07–.29)**
  increased 2.46 (1.49–4.06)*** 5.05 (1.70–15.05)** 0.74 (0.45–1.21) 1.13 (0.67–1.91) 1.10 (0.66–1.84) .14 (.03.-.24)*
  1. Note. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval. β = standardized coefficient. Significant values are shown in bold type. *p < .05, ** p < .01 and *** p < .001, a Nagelkerke R2 = 7.20%, b Nagelkerke R2 = 14.80%, c Nagelkerke R2 = 5.50%, d Nagelkerke R2 = 7.10%, e Nagelkerke R2 = 13.30%, f R2 = 0.07, Adjusted R2 = 0.05