Skip to main content

Table 2 Basic characteristics of rural and urban residents in unmatched and matched cohort

From: Rural and urban differences in patient experience in China: a coarsened exact matching study from the perspective of residents

Variables Unmatched Matched
Rural Urban p-value Rural Urban p-value3
N 3914 5690   1592 1780  
Patient experiencea,1    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Very bad 32(0.82) 35(0.62)   14(0.86) 8(0.45)  
 Bad 501(12.80) 1098(19.30)   197(12.35) 294(16.52)  
 Fair 1430(36.54) 2388(41.97)   589(36.98) 746(41.91)  
 Good 1652(42.21) 2001(35.17)   708(44.50) 677(38.03)  
 Very good 299(7.64) 168(2.95)   84(5.31) 55(3.09)  
 Patient experienceb,2 72.67(17.55) 67.96(17.82) < 0.001 72.35(17.32) 69.45(17.00) < 0.001
Age1 (years)    < 0.001    1.000
  ≤ 45 1298(33.16) 2514(44.18)   723(45.39) 808(45.39)  
 46–60 1361(34.77) 1589(27.93)   484(30.39) 541(30.39)  
  > 60 1255(32.06) 1587(27.89)   385(24.21) 431(24.21)  
Gender1    0.038    0.988
 Male 1923(49.13) 2673(46.98)   732(45.96) 818(45.96)  
 Female 1991(50.87) 3017(53.02)   860(54.04) 962(54.04)  
Education status1    < 0.001    1.000
 Primary school and below 2195(56.08) 1290(22.67)   491(30.84) 549(30.84)  
 Junior and senior school 1580(40.37) 2931(51.51)   924(58.03) 1033(58.03)  
 College degree and above 139(3.55) 1469(25.82)   177(11.12) 198(11.12)  
Marital status1    < 0.001    0.980
 Unmarried/ Divorced/ Widowed/ Cohabiting 725(18.52) 1392(24.46)   199(12.53) 223(12.53)  
 Married 3189(81.48) 4298(75.54)   1393(87.47) 1557(87.47)  
Social status2 4.12(1.66) 4.48(1.59) < 0.001 4.54(1.20) 4.54(1.20) 1.000
Region1    < 0.001    1.000
 Eastern 797(20.36) 3007(52.85)   638(40.06) 713(40.06)  
 Middle 1765(45.09) 1696(29.81)   643(40.39) 719(40.39)  
 Western 1352(34.54) 987(17.35)   311(19.55) 348(19.55)  
Personal income1    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Poorest 787(20.11) 1138(20.00)   361(22.69) 364(20.45)  
 2nd 805(20.57) 1216(21.37)   292(18.37) 433(24.33)  
 Middle 920(23.513) 1067(18.75)   343(21.53) 317(17.81)  
 4st 653(16.68) 1304(22.92)   322(20.22) 360(20.22)  
 Richest 749(19.14) 965(16.96)   274(17.19) 306(17.19)  
Family economic status1    < 0.001    0.999
 Lower than average 1592(40.67) 1976(34.73)   418(26.29) 468(26.29)  
 Average 2090(53.40) 3109(54.64)   1103(69.27) 1233(69.27)  
 Higher than average 232(5.93) 605(10.63)   71(4.44) 79(4.44)  
Medical insurance1    < 0.001    0.955
 No 244(6.23) 486(8.54)   22(1.40) 25(1.40)  
 Yes 3670(93.77) 5204(91.46)   1570(98.60) 1755(98.60)  
Evaluation on adequacy of healthcare resources1    0.892    0.908
 Inadequate 1118(28.56) 1606(28.22)   435(27.32) 476(26.74)  
 Fair 1074(27.44) 1584(27.84)   444(27.86) 506(28.43)  
 Adequate 1722(44.00) 2500(43.94)   713(44.82) 798(44.83)  
Evaluation on distribution of healthcare resources1    0.028    0.606
 Unbalanced 1338(34.18) 2095(36.82)   552(34.68) 609(34.21)  
 Fair 1164(29.74) 1643(28.88)   498(31.31) 522(29.33)  
 Balanced 1412(36.08) 1952(34.31)   542(34.01) 619(36.46)  
Evaluation on accessibility of healthcare resources1    0.948    0.878
 Inconvenient 1153(29.46) 1669(29.33)   442(27.29) 498(27.98)  
 Fair 1033(26.39) 1490(26.19)   436(27.41) 474(26.63)  
 Convenient 1728(44.15) 2531(44.48)   713(44.80) 808(45.39)  
Self-rated health status 1    < 0.001    0.999
 Unhealthy 930(23.76) 742(13.04)   165(10.34) 184(10.34)  
 Fair 791(20.21) 1280(22.50)   207(12.98) 231(12.98)  
 Healthy 2193(56.03) 3668(64.46)   1220(76.69) 1365(76.69)  
  1. Note: N (%) or Mean (SD) are reported
  2. a Measured by numerical variable
  3. b Measured by ordinal categorical variable
  4. 1 Chi-square test
  5. 2 One-way ANOVA
  6. 3 Considering match weights