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Table 2 Frequency of symptoms of depression by categories of covariates

From: Workplace factors associated with mental health of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: an international cross-sectional study

  None of the time Rarely Some of the time Often All the time Total K-W test (chi sq (df), p-value)
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Total 349 13.8 603 23.9 1122 44.4 385 15.2 68 2.7 2527 100  
Country
China 247 20.4 347 28.6 546 45.0 68 5.6 5 0.4 1213 100 259.749 (3)
< 0.001
UK 79 8.9 180 20.2 366 41.1 221 24.8 45 5.1 891 100
US 8 3.2 36 14.3 127 50.4 70 27.8 11 4.4 252 100
Other 15 8.8 40 23.4 83 48.5 26 15.2 7 4.1 171 100
Sex
Male 106 21.0 123 24.3 197 38.9 70 13.8 10 2.0 506 100 18.209 (1)
< 0.001
Female 243 12.0 480 23.8 925 45.8 315 15.6 58 2.9 2021 100
Age
18–25 44 16.0 80 29.1 112 40.7 29 10.6 10 3.6 275 100 12.688 (4)
p = 0.013
26–33 124 13.5 219 23.9 418 45.6 138 15.1 17 1.9 916 100
34–40 57 10.8 116 22.0 246 46.7 91 17.3 17 3.2 527 100
41–48 69 14.9 116 25.0 191 41.2 76 16.4 12 2.6 464 100
49+ 55 15.9 72 20.9 155 44.9 51 14.8 12 3.5 345 100
Living arrangements
Lives with others 313 14.1 547 24.6 980 44.1 322 14.5 62 2.8 2224 100 8.316 (1)
p = 0.004
Lives alone 36 11.9 56 18.5 142 46.9 63 20.8 6 2.0 303 100
Role
Doctors 122 14.0 208 23.8 373 42.7 144 16.5 27 3.1 874 100 20.020 (2)
< 0.001
Nurses 201 14.7 340 24.9 616 45.1 177 13.0 33 2.4 1367 100
Other 26 9.1 55 19.2 133 46.5 64 22.4 8 2.8 286 100
Involved in care of person who died of COVID-19
No 268 16.2 424 25.6 743 44.8 194 11.7 28 1.7 1657 100 69.613 (1)
< 0.001
Yes 81 9.3 179 20.6 379 43.6 191 22.0 40 4.6 870 100
Redeployment
Not redeployed 215 14.6 353 23.9 644 43.6 230 15.6 36 2.4 1478 100 58.221 (4)
< 0.001
Redeployment: area             
General medicine 26 6.9 75 19.8 169 44.7 90 23.8 18 4.8 378 100
Emergency medicine 11 12.1 23 25.3 35 38.5 20 22.0 2 2.2 91 100
ICU 15 5.2 52 18.1 134 46.7 70 24.4 16 5.6 287 100
Other 92 17.4 135 25.5 246 46.5 46 8.7 10 1.9 529 100
Redeployment: training received              77.287 (2)
< 0.001
No training/ not satisfied 46 8.8 90 17.2 245 46.9 112 21.4 30 5.7 523 100
Satisfied with training 88 16.7 160 30.4 233 44.3 43 8.2 2 0.4 526 100
PPE: perceived risk
 Low 323 15.7 534 25.9 919 44.6 255 12.4 28 1.4 2059 100 140.574 (1)
< 0.001
 High 26 5.6 69 14.7 203 43.4 130 27.8 40 8.6 468 100
Support in area/ specialty
 Adequate 328 15.6 557 26.5 929 44.2 260 12.4 28 1.3 2102 100 175.358 (1)
< 0.001
 Poor 21 4.9 46 10.8 193 45.4 125 29.4 40 9.4 425 100
Mental health support
 Adequate 253 16.8 420 27.9 669 44.4 142 9.4 23 1.5 1507 100 132.022 (1)
< 0.001
 Poor 96 9.4 183 17.9 453 44.4 243 23.8 45 4.4 1020 100
  1. ‘Other’ roles include allied healthcare professionals, interns, and hospital management/administrative staff; ‘Other’ redeployment includes contingency planning and telehealth
  2. K-W test Kruskal-Wallis H Test, chi sq Chis squared statistic, df Degrees of freedom, ICU Intensive Care Unit, PPE Personal Protective Equipment