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Table 6 Average marginal effects (AME) of the independent variables on drugs, outpatient and inpatient care burden

From: The out-of-pocket burden of chronic diseases: the cases of Belgian, Czech and German older adults

Variables Drugs burden Outpatient care burden Inpatient care burden
BE CZ DE BE CZ DE BE CZ DE
Male gendera −0.186*** (0.0417) − 0.117*** (0.0337) − 0.0245 (0.0188) − 0.183*** (0.0411) − 0.133** (0.0429) − 0.184** (0.0661) − 0.0297 (0.0290) −0.0436*** (0.0121) 0.0306* (0.0152)
Ageb
  - 65-79 0.162*** (0.0431) 0.0177 (0.0363) 0.0222 (0.0187) 0.000619 (0.0444) −0.119* (0.0479) 0.0276 (0.0661) 0.0779* (0.0318) 0.0223 (0.0129) 0.0135 (0.0151)
  - 80+ 0.272*** (0.0763) 0.0923 (0.0701) 0.0871* (0.0374) 0.0177 (0.0733) −0.218** (0.0687) 0.108 (0.127) 0.102* (0.0482) 0.0405 (0.0229) 0.0282 (0.0285)
Marital statusc
  - separated −0.0118 (0.0576) −0.0595 (0.0540) − 0.0350 (0.0301) − 0.134* (0.0538) 0.0980 (0.0751) −0.0366 (0.116) 0.00275 (0.0428) 0.0245 (0.0224) 0.0543 (0.0296)
  - never married −0.139 (0.0879) −0.0109 (0.124) − 0.0736 (0.0383) − 0.0867 (0.102) −0.140 (0.103) 0.0746 (0.159) 0.118 (0.106) 0.0636 (0.0507) −0.0252 (0.0202)
  - widowed −0.186** (0.0575) −0.0451 (0.0494) −0.0264 (0.0322) − 0.215*** (0.0530) −0.0828 (0.0565) − 0.182* (0.0906) − 0.0223 (0.0351) 0.00951 (0.0177) 0.0576* (0.0292)
Educationd
 - secondary 0.00650 (0.0520) −0.0146 (0.0356) 0.0443 (0.0304) 0.144** (0.0495) 0.194*** (0.0427) 0.236* (0.0991) 0.0411 (0.0380) 0.0290* (0.0119) 0.0310 (0.0190)
 - tertiary 0.0260 (0.0523) 0.0892 (0.0525) 0.0545 (0.0332) 0.232*** (0.0516) 0.342*** (0.0621) 0.456*** (0.113) −0.00461 (0.0333) 0.0955*** (0.0290) −0.00640 (0.0199)
Incomee
 - 2nd quartile −0.516*** (0.0779) −0.485*** (0.0607) − 0.145*** (0.0351) − 0.353*** (0.0750) − 0.0938 (0.0758) − 0.0177 (0.125) − 0.0492 (0.0506) 0.00579 (0.0180) 0.0119 (0.0259)
 - 3rd quartile −0.836*** (0.0742) − 0.695*** (0.0606) − 0.271*** (0.0326) − 0.558*** (0.0775) −0.265*** (0.0697) − 0.164 (0.115) −0.165*** (0.0473) − 0.0109 (0.0192) −0.0479* (0.0231)
 - 4th quartile −1.278*** (0.0706) −0.979*** (0.0560) −0.470*** (0.0310) −0.749*** (0.0761) − 0.362*** (0.0676) − 0.469*** (0.108) − 0.192*** (0.0473) −0.00497 (0.0171) − 0.0917*** (0.0232)
Heart attack 0.419*** (0.0647) 0.475*** (0.0564) 0.175*** (0.0299) 0.139* (0.0544) 0.0405 (0.0640) 0.0437 (0.109) 0.0513 (0.0341) −0.000490 (0.0138) 0.0835*** (0.0204)
High blood pressure 0.290*** (0.0428) 0.342*** (0.0337) 0.108*** (0.0180) 0.0386 (0.0403) 0.0439 (0.0426) 0.214** (0.0712) 0.0262 (0.0288) 0.00485 (0.0129) 0.0331* (0.0140)
High cholesterol 0.163*** (0.0426) 0.0514 (0.0389) 0.0340 (0.0215) 0.0187 (0.0419) −0.0440 (0.0460) −0.132 (0.0790) 0.0242 (0.0324) 0.0113 (0.0141) −0.00481 (0.0172)
Stroke 0.149 (0.102) 0.190* (0.0889) 0.167** (0.0514) −0.0415 (0.0817) −0.00509 (0.115) −0.0226 (0.144) 0.136* (0.0586) 0.0425* (0.0215) 0.101** (0.0338)
Diabetes 0.362*** (0.0660) 0.327*** (0.0441) 0.177*** (0.0268) 0.0907 (0.0557) 0.0508 (0.0503) −0.126 (0.0917) 0.0434 (0.0386) − 0.0117 (0.0133) 0.0358 (0.0200)
Lung disease 0.470*** (0.0762) 0.201** (0.0682) 0.162*** (0.0324) −0.0147 (0.0570) −0.0555 (0.0683) 0.447** (0.145) 0.0699 (0.0456) 0.0116 (0.0204) 0.0299 (0.0206)
Cancer 0.402*** (0.0944) 0.318*** (0.0837) 0.180*** (0.0448) 0.126 (0.0644) −0.00712 (0.0731) 0.428** (0.152) 0.0549 (0.0504) 0.0550* (0.0249) 0.0951*** (0.0270)
Ulcer 0.242** (0.0749) 0.211* (0.0947) 0.105 (0.0671) −0.00246 (0.0672) −0.130 (0.105) −0.0558 (0.158) 0.00906 (0.0493) −0.00952 (0.0213) 0.0303 (0.0367)
Parkinson 1.202*** (0.251) 0.259 (0.160) 0.262* (0.116) 0.318 (0.199) 0.0971 (0.170) 0.0915 (0.236) 0.0751 (0.101) 0.0952* (0.0422) 0.0451 (0.0465)
Cataracts 0.193* (0.0854) 0.133* (0.0565) 0.0282 (0.0308) 0.144 (0.0782) 0.110 (0.0720) 0.124 (0.122) 0.00390 (0.0437) −0.0169 (0.0194) −0.0195 (0.0225)
Alzheimer 0.115 (0.177) 0.0187 (0.133) 0.148 (0.0906) −0.129 (0.129) −0.192 (0.142) 0.202 (0.224) 0.0463 (0.0920) −0.0259 (0.0397) 0.0352 (0.0412)
Emotional disorders 0.465*** (0.0704) 0.274*** (0.0805) 0.130*** (0.0322) 0.116 (0.0645) 0.0612 (0.0957) 0.139 (0.147) 0.0760 (0.0470) 0.0436* (0.0176) 0.0501* (0.0215)
Rheum. Arthritis 0.298*** (0.0829) 0.182*** (0.0548) 0.137*** (0.0320) 0.0801 (0.0722) 0.0187 (0.0733) 0.0933 (0.0953) −0.0189 (0.0459) −0.00128 (0.0179) 0.0622** (0.0216)
Osteoarthritis 0.375*** (0.0432) 0.320*** (0.0376) 0.0897*** (0.0216) 0.163*** (0.0416) 0.127** (0.0458) 0.171* (0.0786) 0.0350 (0.0302) 0.0238 (0.0139) 0.0389* (0.0163)
Chronic kidney dis. 0.356** (0.127) 0.278* (0.111) 0.0688 (0.0696) −0.0862 (0.103) 0.253* (0.123) −0.0239 (0.189) −0.0276 (0.0598) 0.00802 (0.0258) −0.0141 (0.0310)
Other conditions 0.395*** (0.0529) 0.335*** (0.0417) 0.168*** (0.0224) 0.146** (0.0487) 0.0313 (0.0489) 0.180* (0.0720) 0.0495 (0.0324) 0.0241 (0.0150) 0.0440** (0.0152)
ADL 0.0828 (0.0681) 0.299*** (0.0644) 0.0211 (0.0351) 0.0198 (0.0608) −0.0445 (0.0668) −0.00492 (0.132) 0.153*** (0.0394) 0.0477** (0.0173) 0.00911 (0.0266)
IADL 0.358*** (0.0588) 0.315*** (0.0529) 0.0859** (0.0326) 0.0149 (0.0532) −0.135* (0.0549) −0.238* (0.119) 0.0173 (0.0335) 0.0357* (0.0162) 0.0565* (0.0229)
Suppl. health insurance.f 0.0624 (0.0493) −0.0497 (0.0611) 0.0297 (0.0187) 0.141** (0.0442) 0.0347 (0.0874) 0.109 (0.0695) −0.152*** (0.0438) 0.00315 (0.0233) −0.00829 (0.0142)
  1. Note: standard errors in parentheses; * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  2. Reference categories: a female gender, b 50–64, c cohabitation, d none/primary, e 1st quartile, f no supplementary insurance