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Table 5 Average marginal effects (AMEs) of the independent variables on the total OOPP burden

From: The out-of-pocket burden of chronic diseases: the cases of Belgian, Czech and German older adults

Variables Total OOPP burden
BE CZ DE
Male gendera −0.412*** (0.0773) −0.322*** (0.0603) − 0.210** (0.0773)
Ageb
 • 65–79 0.202* (0.0807) − 0.113 (0.0675) 0.0679 (0.0778)
 • 80+ 0.351** (0.134) −0.122 (0.109) 0.229 (0.143)
Marital statusc
 • separated − 0.119 (0.107) 0.0750 (0.104) − 0.0372 (0.133)
 • never married −0.133 (0.213) − 0.103 (0.201) − 0.0241 (0.169)
 • widowed −0.407*** (0.100) −0.112 (0.0842) − 0.163 (0.110)
Educationd
 • secondary 0.182 (0.0955) 0.217*** (0.0614) 0.272* (0.124)
 • tertiary 0.258** (0.0953) 0.513*** (0.0908) 0.463*** (0.136)
Incomee
 • 2nd quartile −1.030*** (0.139) −0.581*** (0.106) − 0.134 (0.134)
 • 3rd quartile −1.623*** (0.138) −0.981*** (0.103) − 0.460*** (0.123)
 • 4th quartile −2.241*** (0.135) −1.379*** (0.0997) −1.011*** (0.117)
Heart attack 0.611*** (0.103) 0.556*** (0.0887) 0.365** (0.118)
High blood pressure 0.359*** (0.0771) 0.376*** (0.0600) 0.336*** (0.0822)
High blood cholesterol 0.209** 0.0339 −0.104
(0.0782) (0.0686) (0.0882)
Stroke 0.281 (0.187) 0.280 (0.155) 0.328 (0.169)
Diabetes 0.478*** (0.106) 0.379*** (0.0724) 0.0795 (0.0959)
Lung disease 0.588*** (0.126) 0.149 (0.107) 0.586*** (0.163)
Cancer 0.619*** (0.147) 0.333** (0.127) 0.726*** (0.177)
Ulcer 0.226 (0.133) 0.0990 (0.149) 0.0462 (0.189)
Parkinson 1.584*** (0.355) 0.524* (0.252) 0.486 (0.341)
Cataracts 0.398** (0.147) 0.254* (0.101) 0.140 (0.140)
Alzheimer 0.132 (0.262) −0.101 (0.203) 0.271 (0.233)
Emotional disorders 0.708*** (0.127) 0.375** (0.128) 0.330* (0.144)
Rheumatoid Arthritis 0.393** (0.141) 0.212* (0.0976) 0.311** (0.110)
Osteoarthritis 0.589*** (0.0787) 0.457*** (0.0650) 0.276** (0.0914)
Chronic kidney disease 0.273 (0.191) 0.519** (0.193) 0.0891 (0.206)
Other conditions 0.589*** (0.0951) 0.387*** (0.0718) 0.364*** (0.0831)
ADL 0.302* (0.121) 0.370*** (0.0983) 0.0610 (0.148)
IADL 0.381*** (0.0990) 0.259** (0.0818) −0.0479 (0.122)
Suppl. health insurancef 0.128 (0.0900) −0.0232 (0.122) 0.146 (0.0798)
  1. Note: standard errors in parentheses; * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  2. Reference categories: a female gender, b 50–64, c cohabitation, d none/primary, e 1st quartile, f no supplementary insurance