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Table 4 Sample characteristics (percentage shares)

From: The out-of-pocket burden of chronic diseases: the cases of Belgian, Czech and German older adults

Variables Belgium Czech Republic Germany
Gender
 • female 54.92 59.42 52.46
 • male 45.08 40.58 47.54
Age
 • 50–64 48.17 35.84 45.73
 • 65–79 38.45 51.90 44.01
 • 80 + 13.38 12.25 10.26
Marital status
 • cohabitation 66.82 63.80 73.98
 • seperated 14.09 14.05 9.87
 • never married 5.98 2.16 4.92
 • widowed 13.12 20.00 11.23
Education
 • none/primary 37.60 38.32 11.54
 • secondary 27.36 47.82 57.15
 • tertiary 35.03 13.86 31.31
Income
 • 1st quartile 25.00 25.00 25.00
 • 2nd quartile 25.00 25.00 25.00
 • 3rd quartile 25.00 25.00 25.00
 • 4th quartile 25.00 25.00 25.00
Heart attack 9.34 12.65 10.31
High blood pressure 34.01 52.29 42.41
High blood cholesterol 30.36 25.35 18.20
Stroke 3.38 4.23 3.51
Diabetes 11.25 19.85 14.07
Lung disease 7.06 7.60 8.01
Cancer 5.05 4.74 6.10
Ulcer 5.66 3.96 2.07
Parkinson 0.72 1.04 0.86
Cataracts 7.22 10.05 8.75
Alzheimer 1.29 1.95 1.60
Emotional disorders 8.08 5.14 7.71
Rheumatoid arthritis 6.63 10.66 11.95
Osteoarthritis 32.16 28.61 21.61
Chronic kidney disease 1.60 2.50 2.11
Other conditions 16.74 18.60 18.59
ADL 14.64 13.20 10.47
IADL 21.25 20.48 14.00
Supplementary health insurance 81.67 6.07 29.18
N 5566 4726 4308