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Table 1 Summary Statistics

From: Inpatient rehabilitation service utilization and outcomes under US ACA Medicaid expansion

  Non-Expansion States Expansion States
2013 2016 P value* 2013 2016 P value*
Stroke
 N 1289 1303 ~ 3621 5406 ~
 Length of Stay (Days) 18.82 (14.04) 17.18 (13.00) 0.002 17.05 (11.62) 16.05 (10.78) < 0.001
 FIM Gain 29.79 (15.82) 32.12 (16.02) < 0.001 28.77 (15.31) 29.70 (15.38) 0.005
 LOS Efficiency 2.07 (1.75) 2.42 (2.18) < 0.001 2.20 (1.81) 2.35 (1.81) < 0.001
 Return to Community (=1) 1012 (78.5%) 1062 (81.5%) 0.057 2667 (73.7%) 4036 (74.6%) 0.303
 FIM Admission 52.24 (19.13) 53.87 (17.96) 0.026 55.62 (18.90) 57.10 (19.17) < 0.001
 Primary Payer (MCO = 1) 315 (24.4%) 661 (50.7%) < 0.001 1646 (45.5%) 3289 (60.8%) < 0.001
 Case-Mixed Groups - 101 N (%) 38 (2.9%) 44 (3.4%) 0.636 144 (4.0%) 282 (5.2%) 0.002
 CMG - 102 60 (4.7%) 71 (5.4%)   236 (6.5%) 402 (7.4%)  
 CMG - 103 18 (1.4%) 26 (2.0%)   64 (1.8%) 104 (1.9%)  
 CMG - 104 127 (9.9%) 137 (10.5%)   434 (12.0%) 744 (13.8%)  
 CMG - 105 135 (10.5%) 127 (9.7%)   401 (11.1%) 558 (10.3%)  
 CMG - 106 114 (8.8%) 139 (10.7%)   362 (10.0%) 516 (9.5%)  
 CMG - 107 113 (8.8%) 108 (8.3%)   345 (9.5%) 461 (8.5%)  
 CMG - 109 129 (10.0%) 122 (9.4%)   362 (10.0%) 484 (8.9%)  
 CMG - 110 533 (41.3%) 511 (39.2%)   1216 (33.6%) 1742 (32.2%)  
 CMG - 5001 22 (1.7%) 18 (1.4%)   57 (1.6%) 112 (2.1%)  
 Comorbidity Tier
  - None 832 (64.5%) 696 (53.4%) < 0.001 2486 (68.7%) 3138 (58.0%) < 0.001
  - Minor 366 (28.4%) 528 (40.5%)   946 (26.1%) 2012 (37.2%)  
  - Moderate 23 (1.8%) 20 (1.5%)   45 (1.2%) 57 (1.1%)  
  - Major 68 (5.3%) 59 (4.5%)   144 (4.0%) 203 (3.8%)  
 Age (Years) 51.89 (9.71) 51.3 (9.91) 0.127 51.85 (9.44) 52.15 (9.4) 0.142
 Gender (Female = 1) 667 (51.7%) 629 (48.3%) 0.077 1584 (43.7%) 2351 (43.5%) 0.81
 Hispanic (=1) 66 (5.1%) 32 (2.5%) < 0.001 580 (16.0%) 747 (13.8%) 0.004
 Black (=1) 615 (47.7%) 508 (39.0%) < 0.001 1087 (30.0%) 1617 (29.9%) 0.883
 Marital Status
  - Married 362 (28.1%) 393 (30.2%) 0.673 1086 (30.0%) 1550 (28.7%) < 0.001
  - Never Married 528 (41.0%) 527 (40.4%)   1607 (44.4%) 2506 (46.3%)  
  - Separated/Widowed 347 (26.9%) 332 (25.5%)   823 (22.7%) 1084 (20.0%)  
  - Missing 52 (4.0%) 51 (3.9%)   105 (2.9%) 270 (5.0%)  
 No. of Certified Beds 62.56 (40.76) 59.61 (42.46) 0.071 56.39 (47.64) 54.47 (40.56) 0.050
 Facility type
  - Freestanding 540 (41.9%) / < 0.001 1169 (32.3%) / < 0.001
  - In-Unit 749 (58.1%) /   2452 (67.7%) /  
  - Missing / 1303 (100.0%)   / 5410 (100.0%)  
Fracture
 N 254 244 ~ 340 432 ~
 Length of Stay (Days) 11.59 (6.18) 11.24 (4.99) 0.441 11.27 (5.04) 11.22 (6.65) 0.900
 FIM Gain 28.76 (13.28) 32.84 (13.83) 0.001 30.67 (12.94) 31.98 (13.43) 0.172
 FIM Gain per day 2.91 (1.91) 3.27 (1.89) 0.037 3.15 (1.79) 3.32 (1.85) 0.189
 Return to Community (=1) 222 (87.4%) 225 (91.5%) 0.149 286 (84.1%) 380 (87.8%) 0.149
 FIM Admission 62.21 (15.57) 64.12 (13.57) 0.159 67.90 (14.27) 66.98 (13.66) 0.342
 Primary Payer (MCO = 1) 76 (29.9%) 119 (48.4%) < 0.001 165 (48.5%) 272 (62.8%) < 0.001
 Case-Mixed Groups - 701 N (%) 21 (8.3%) 20 (8.1%) 0.219 39 (11.5%) 43 (9.9%) 0.918
 CMG - 702 44 (17.3%) 56 (22.8%)   89 (26.2%) 120 (27.7%)  
 CMG - 703 54 (21.3%) 63 (25.6%)   76 (22.4%) 100 (23.1%)  
 CMG - 704 128 (50.4%) 99 (40.2%)   130 (38.2%) 160 (37.0%)  
 CMG - 5001 7 (2.8%) 7 (2.8%)   6 (1.8%) 10 (2.3%)  
 CMG - 5101 / 1 (0.4%)   / 0 (0.0%)  
 Comorbidity Tier
  - None 154 (60.6%) 146 (59.3%) 0.081 232 (68.2%) 275 (63.5%) 0.421
  - Minor 78 (30.7%) 91 (37.0%)   82 (24.1%) 115 (26.6%)  
  - Moderate 14 (5.5%) 5 (2.0%)   13 (3.8%) 26 (6.0%)  
  - Major 8 (3.1%) 4 (1.6%)   13 (3.8%) 17 (3.9%)  
 Age (Years) 52.52 (11.53) 51.19 (12.36) 0.218 51.84 (11.79) 48.29 (13.56) < 0.001
 Gender (Female = 1) 156 (61.4%) 155 (63.5%) 0.627 197 (57.9%) 205 (47.5%) 0.004
 Hispanic (=1) 16 (6.3%) 12 (4.9%) 0.504 31 (9.1%) 40 (9.2%) 0.946
 Black (=1) 64 (25.2%) 50 (20.3%) 0.212 65 (19.1%) 81 (18.7%) 0.897
 Marital Status
  - Married 56 (22.0%) 49 (19.9%) 0.832 65 (19.1%) 84 (19.4%) 0.015
  - Never Married 109 (42.9%) 108 (43.9%)   166 (48.8%) 247 (57.0%)  
  - Separated/Widowed 77 (30.3%) 80 (32.5%)   91 (26.8%) 92 (21.2%)  
  - Missing 12 (4.7%) 9 (3.7%)   18 (5.3%) 10 (2.3%)  
 No. of Certified Beds 52.61 (32.16) 56.39 (39.46) 0.257 47.84 (37.19) 52.75 (35.19) 0.057
 Facility type
  - Freestanding 95 (37.4%) / < 0.001 103 (30.3%) / < 0.001
  - In-Unit 159 (62.6%) /   237 (69.7%) /  
  - Missing / 246 (100.0%)   / 433 (100.0%)  
Joint Replacement
 N 418 275 ~ 709 626 ~
 Length of Stay (Days) 9.03 (3.88) 9.05 (3.62) 0.95 9.52 (4.61) 9.00 (3.90) 0.025
 FIM Gain 31.31 (12.39) 34.13 (13.45) 0.005 31.80 (11.74) 30.52 (12.16) 0.056
 FIM Gain per day 3.85 (1.86) 4.14 (2.00) 0.048 3.77 (1.66) 3.66 (1.63) 0.252
 Return to Community (=1) 402 (96.2%) 258 (93.8%) 0.155 663 (93.4%) 578 (92.3%) 0.461
 FIM Admission 71.60 (13.06) 70.46 (12.91) 0.262 72.93 (12.90) 75.33 (11.45) < 0.001
 Primary Payer (MCO = 1) 159 (38.0%) 154 (56.0%) < 0.001 456 (64.2%) 491 (78.4%) < 0.001
 Case-Mixed Groups - 801 N (%) 10 (2.4%) 9 (3.3%) 0.925 28 (3.9%) 39 (6.2%) 0.048
 CMG - 802 139 (33.3%) 87 (31.6%)   233 (32.8%) 238 (38.0%)  
 CMG - 804 134 (32.1%) 87 (31.6%)   252 (35.5%) 214 (34.2%)  
 CMG - 805 74 (17.7%) 53 (19.3%)   118 (16.6%) 78 (12.5%)  
 CMG - 806 48 (11.5%) 33 (12.0%)   63 (8.9%) 43 (6.9%)  
 CMG - 5001 13 (3.1%) 6 (2.2%)   16 (2.3%) 13 (2.1%)  
 CMG - 5101 / 0 (0.0%)   / 1 (0.2%)  
 Comorbidity Tier
  - None 268 (64.1) 144 (52.4%) 0.011 476 (67.0%) 368 (58.8%) 0.004
  - Minor 145 (34.7%) 125 (45.5%)   224 (31.5%) 247 (39.5%)  
  - Moderate 4 (1.0%) 6 (2.2%)   7 (1.0%) 11 (1.8%)  
  - Major 1 (0.2%) /   3 (0.4%) /  
 Age (Years) 53.75 (8.48) 54.63 (8.33) 0.183 53.88 (7.72) 54.67 (7.45) 0.062
 Gender (Female = 1) 293 (70.1%) 193 (70.2%) 0.981 496 (70.0%) 384 (61.3%) < 0.001
 Hispanic (=1) 85 (20.3%) 15 (5.5%) < 0.001 73 (10.3%) 77 (12.3%) 0.247
 Black (=1) 149 (35.6%) 88 (32.0%) 0.322 224 (31.5%) 197 (31.5%) 0.961
 Marital Status
  - Married 111 (26.6%) 50 (18.2%) 0.023 177 (24.9%) 162 (25.9%) 0.924
  - Never Married 142 (34.0%) 120 (43.6%)   319 (44.9%) 280 (44.7%)  
  - Separated/Widowed 156 (37.3%) 101 (36.7%)   191 (26.9%) 161 (25.7%)  
  - Missing 9 (2.2%) 4 (1.5%)   23 (3.2%) 23 (3.7%)  
 No. of Certified Beds 60.72 (33.02) 64.55 (42.83) 0.21 45.98 (38.68) 51.82 (35.57) 0.004
 Facility type
  - Freestanding 128 (30.6%) / < 0.001 180 (25.4%) / < 0.001
  - In-Unit 290 (69.4%) /   530 (74.6%) /  
  - Missing / 275 (100.0%)   / 626 (100.0%)  
  1. Note: Entries for the categorical variables are number of observations with percentages in parentheses; entries for the continuous variables are the averages with standard errors in parentheses. * F-test was used to test the sample difference. P-value reported