Skip to main content

TABLE 3 USE OF RESOURCES AND MEAN COSTS (IN €) PER CHILD

From: Cost of childhood acute otitis media in primary care in the Netherlands: economic analysis alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial

Resources Mean costs
no. used
(n, %)
costs, in €
(mean ± SD)
costs, in $
(mean ± SD)
 
GP consultation, initial visit 224 (100.0) 33.76 ± 0.00 38.11 ± 0.00  
GP consultation, follow-up visit 74 (33.1) 16.04 ± 1.77 18.10 ± 2.00  
GP home visit 0 (0) 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00  
GP telephone 40 (17.9) 3.51 ± 0.53 3.96 ± 0.60  
OPD visit 7 (3.1) 3.30 ± 1.41 3.72 ± 1.59  
ED visit 1 (0.0) 1.19 ± 1.19 1.34 ± 1.34  
Admission 1 (0.0) 10.16 ± 10.16 11.47 ± 11.47  
Pharmacist fee 102 (45.7) 6.55 ± 0.53 7.39 ± 0.60  
Prescription medication  
Antibiotics
  Amoxicillin 80 (35.9) 1.86 ± 0.19 2.10 ± 0.21  
  Amoxicillin-clavulanate 6 (2.7) 0.14 ± 0.06 0.16 ± 0.07  
  Azitromycin 6 (2.7) 0.14 ± 0.06 0.16 ± 0.07  
  Cotrimoxazole 2 (0.01) 0.03 ± 0.02 0.03 ± 0.02  
  Clarithromycin 1 (0.0) 0.04 ± 0.04 0.05 ± 0.05  
Ear drops  
  Otalgan® 10 (4.5) 0.49 ± 0.15 0.55 ± 0.17  
  Sofradex® 3 (1.3) 0.24 ± 0.14 0.27 ± 0.16  
  Ofloxacin 1 (0.0) 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00  
  Bacicoline B drops 2 (0.01) 0.13 ± 0.09 0.15 ± 0.10  
Total healthcare costs   77.60 ± 160.89 87.59 ± 181.60  
Patient and family costs
 Travel expenses
  Fuel costs 9 (4.0) 0.09 ± 0.04 0.10 ± 0.05  
  Parking costs 9 (4.0) 0.21 ± 0.09 0.24 ± 0.10  
 Over-the-counter medication  
  Paracetamol 191 (85.7) 2.55 ± 3.10 2.88 ± 3.50 *
  Ibuprofen 79 (35.4) 0.62 ± 1.34 0.70 ± 1.51 *
  Xylometazoline nasal spray 29 (13.0) 0.87 ± 2.77 0.98 ± 3.13 *
  Otrivin® nasal spray 17 (7.6) 0.35 ± 1.22 0.40 ± 1.38 *
  Sodium chloride nasal spray 44 (19.7) 0.62 ± 1.30 0.70 ± 1.47 *
  Complementary medicine 33 (14.8) 3.38 ± 12.28 3.82 ± 13.86 *
  Cough syrup 9 (4.0) 1.21 ± 7.97 1.37 ± 9.00 *
 Childcare costs 27 (12.1) 3.17 ± 18.45 3.58 ± 20.82 *
Total patient and family costs   13.07 ± 23.58 14.75 ± 26.62  
Productivity loss
 Father 79 (35.4)    
  Absenteeism   106.13 ± 354.05 119.79 ± 399.62 *
  Presenteeism   41.90 ± 180.97 47.29 ± 204.26 *
  Unpaid work   38.06 ± 173.75 42.96 ± 196.12 *
  Total   186.09 ± 529.31 210.04 ± 597.44 *
 Mother 126 (56.5)    
  Absenteeism   139.74 ± 637.66 157.73 ± 719.74 *
  Presenteeism   52.50 ± 217.53 59.26 ± 245.53 *
  Unpaid work   96.92 ± 256.35 109.40 ± 289.35 *
  Total   289.16 ± 786.73 326.38 ± 888.00 *
Total productivity losses   475.26 ± 1045.94 536.44 ± 1180.57  
Total
Total healthcare costs   77.60 ± 160.89 87.59 ± 181.60  
Total patient costs   13.07 ± 23.58 14.75 ± 26.62  
Total productivity losses   475.26 ± 1045.94 536.44 ± 1180.57  
Total costs   565.93 ± 1071.01 638.78 ± 1208.87  
  1. ED: emergency department; GP: general practitioner, OPD: out-patient department, SD: standard deviation
  2. one admission for mastoiditis (duration: 5 days)
  3. Per child, calculated as productivity losses of mother and/or father combined
  4. *missing values were imputed