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TABLE 2 BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS

From: Cost of childhood acute otitis media in primary care in the Netherlands: economic analysis alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial

  Total group
n = 223; 37 practices
Intervention
n = 94; 19 practices
Usual care
n = 129; 18 practices
Characteristic
Age (months) 40 (16–64) 38 (13–62) 43 (20–66)
Sex (boys) 120 (53.8) 54 (57.4) 66 (51.2)
Medical history
 Recurrent AOM 26 (11.7) 14 (14.9) 12 (9.3)
 Recurrent URTI 24 (10.8) 13 (13.8) 11 (8.5)
 Previous ENT surgery 23 (10.3) 15 (16.0) 8 (6.2)
 Atopic constitution 24 (10.8) 16 (17.0) 8 (6.2)
Symptoms prior to consultation (parent-reported)
 Ear pain (yes/no)* 166 (86.9) 75 (90.4) 91 (84.3)
  Number of days 2 (0.5–3.5) 2 (0.5–3.5) 3 (1–5)
 Otorrhoea* 28 (15.7) 12 (15.4) 16 (16.0)
  Number of days 0 (0–0) 2 (0–5) 2 (0–4.5)
 Fever* 126 (64.3) 50 (60.2) 76 (67.3)
  Number of days 2 (0.5–3.5) 2 (1–3) 3 (2–4)
Physical examination
 Temperature in °C 37.8 ± 1.0 37.6 ± 0.9 37.9 ± 1.1
 Ill appearance 43 (20.0) 18 (19.6) 25 (20.3)
 Unilateral AOM 144 (64.6) 65 (69.1) 79 (61.2)
  Redness 132 (59.2) 60 (92.3) 72 (91.1)
  Bulging 81 (36.3) 29 (44.6) 52 (65.8)
  Otorrhoea 12 (5.4) 4 (6.2) 8 (10.1)
 Bilateral AOM 79 (35.4) 29 (30.9) 50 (38.8)
  Redness 74 (33.2) 29 (100) 45 (90.0)
  Bulging 53 (23.8) 17 (58.6) 36 (72.0)
  Otorrhoea 8 (3.6) 3 (10.3) 5 (10.0)
Symptoms at baseline (parent-reported)
 Proportion of children with ear pain* 204 (98.1) 87 (98.9) 117 (97.5)
 Proportion of children with fever* 107 (54.9) 40 (48.2) 67 (59.8)
Antibiotic prescriptions** 92 (41.3) 36 (38.3) 56 (43.4)
  1. Values are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwise
  2. °C: degrees Celsius; AOM: acute otitis media; ENT: ear, nose, throat; GP: general practitioner; URTI: upper respiratory tract infection
  3. median with IQR, mean with SD
  4. * missings: otorrhea prior to consultation (45), ear pain prior to consultation (32), fever prior to consultation (21), temperature (10), ill appearance (8), ear pain at baseline (15), fever at baseline (22)
  5. ** number (and percentage) of children prescribed one (or more) antibiotics