|Author / PPS/Country/ Publication year / Duration/ Number of patients||Objectives||Outcome indicators|
 Al Hamarneh|
Canada/2017/ 3 months
n = 573; IG (n = 286) and CG (n = 287)
|To evaluate the effect of pharmacist case finding and intervention program on estimated cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with diabetes.||
Difference and change in estimated CV risk (validated risk-assessment equation) between IG and CG.
Differences between groups in changes of: HbA1c, LDL cholesterol levels, blood pressure and tobacco cessation, medication use and dose changes, lifestyle habits and CV risk and risk factors.
Australia/2013/ 6 months
n = 570; IG (n = 292) and CG (n = 278)
|To test the feasibility, effectiveness and sustainability of an asthma service.||
Asthma control (validated assessment equation- ACQ-), inhaler technique and health - related quality of life.
n = 6987; IG (Group A (n = 3588) and Group B (n = 3399))
|To evaluate the effectiveness of two models of smoking cessation that included nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).||
Abstinence at end-of-treatment determined by self-report.
England/2017/ 14 months
n = 504; IG (n = 251) and CG (n = 253)
|To examine the effectiveness of the NMS in people starting a new medicine for a long-term condition.||
Adherence (validated assessment equation), health status (quality of life), medicines understanding and National Health System (NHS) cost.
n = 512; IG (n = 248) and CG (n = 264)
|To determine whether a medication review followed by a pharmaceutical care plan decreases potential DRPs and pharmaceutical care issues (PCIs), along with a positive effect on cardiovascular risk factors and safety parameters for elderly polypharmacy patients with a cardiovascular disorder.||
Resolved DRPs and PCIs.
Differences in clinical and lab values
United States/2012/ 9 months
n = 65; IG (n = 38) and CG (n = 27)
|To evaluate the efficacy of a community- based, pharmacist-directed diabetes management program among managed care organization enrolees using National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA)–Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) performance measures.||
HbA1c (< 7.0%), blood pressure (< 130/80 mmHg), and LDL cholesterol (< 100 mg/dL).
A composite research outcome of success was created by determining whether a participant achieved two of the three goals at the end of 9 months.
Dispensing /Adherence service
n = 179; IG (n = 87) and CG (n = 92)
|To evaluate the effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention (CPI) compared with usual care in improvement of adherence to antidepressants and patient well-being in a population initiating pharmacological treatment following diagnosis of depression.||
Adherence to antidepressants, clinical severity of depression, health-related quality of life and satisfaction with pharmacy care.
Australia/2014/ 6 months
n = 395; IG (n = 207) and CG (n = 188)
|To evaluate a community pharmacist intervention to improve adherence with antihypertensive medicines with a view to improving blood pressure (BP) control.||
Change in proportion self-reporting medication adherence (validated questionnaire).
BP changes and the proportion of self-reporting adherence on the Tool for Adherence Behaviour Screening (TABS).
Belgium/2013/ 3 months
n = 734; IG (n = 371), CG (n = 363)
|To test the effectiveness of a pharmaceutical care programme in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in the community pharmacist educational intervention.||
Improvement of the inhalation technique, and medication adherence,
Reduction of Dyspnoea, severe exacerbations and emergency visits or hospitalization.
Improvement of generic health status (quality of life) and disease- specific health status - COPD Assessment Test (CAT)-.
Canada/2015/ 6 months
n = 248; IG (n = 181), CG (n = 67)
|To study the impact of pharmacist prescribing on blood pressure (BP) control in community-dwelling patients.||
Difference in change of systolic BP from baseline to 6 months between IG and CG.
Change in diastolic BP. Number of: patients at their target BP after 6 months, new antihypertensive medication, dose changes, drug changes, new prescriptions for ASA and cholesterol lowering medications.
Netherlands/2019/ 6 months
n = 629; IG (n = 315) and CG (n = 314)
|To investigate the effect of a patient -centred CMR, focused on personal goals, on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), and on number of health problems.||
HR-QoL (assessed with EuroQoL [EQ]-5D-5L and EQ-Visual Analogue Scale [VAS])
Number of health problems, after 3 and 6 months.
Number of: long-term medications, prescribed drugs added and ceased. Severity of complaints measured with VAS scores and healthcare consumption.
USA/2014/ 3 months
n = 961; IG (n = 475) and CG (n = 486)
|To evaluate the effectiveness of a telephonic MTM service on reducing hospitalizations among home health patients.||
60-day all-cause hospitalization.
The effect of hospitalization while adjusting for patients’ baseline risk. Number of medications taken daily. DRP identified. Pharmacist’s recommendations. Physician’s response.