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Table 1 Description of key general characteristics of included papers

From: Systematic review of pragmatic randomised control trials assessing the effectiveness of professional pharmacy services in community pharmacies

Author / PPS/Country/ Publication year / Duration/ Number of patients Objectives Outcome indicators
[67] Al Hamarneh
Canada/2017/ 3 months
n = 573; IG (n = 286) and CG (n = 287)
To evaluate the effect of pharmacist case finding and intervention program on estimated cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with diabetes. Primary:
Difference and change in estimated CV risk (validated risk-assessment equation) between IG and CG.
Differences between groups in changes of: HbA1c, LDL cholesterol levels, blood pressure and tobacco cessation, medication use and dose changes, lifestyle habits and CV risk and risk factors.
[51] Armour
DSM asthma/MTM
Australia/2013/ 6 months
n = 570; IG (n = 292) and CG (n = 278)
To test the feasibility, effectiveness and sustainability of an asthma service. Primary:
Asthma control (validated assessment equation- ACQ-), inhaler technique and health - related quality of life.
[49] Costello
Smoking cessation
Canada/2010/3 months
n = 6987; IG (Group A (n = 3588) and Group B (n = 3399))
To evaluate the effectiveness of two models of smoking cessation that included nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Primary:
Abstinence at end-of-treatment determined by self-report.
[67] Elliot
England/2017/ 14 months
n = 504; IG (n = 251) and CG (n = 253)
To examine the effectiveness of the NMS in people starting a new medicine for a long-term condition. Primary:
Adherence (validated assessment equation), health status (quality of life), medicines understanding and National Health System (NHS) cost.
[69] Geurts
Netherlands/2016/12 months
n = 512; IG (n = 248) and CG (n = 264)
To determine whether a medication review followed by a pharmaceutical care plan decreases potential DRPs and pharmaceutical care issues (PCIs), along with a positive effect on cardiovascular risk factors and safety parameters for elderly polypharmacy patients with a cardiovascular disorder. Primary:
Resolved DRPs and PCIs.
Differences in clinical and lab values
[70] Planas
United States/2012/ 9 months
n = 65; IG (n = 38) and CG (n = 27)
To evaluate the efficacy of a community- based, pharmacist-directed diabetes management program among managed care organization enrolees using National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA)–Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) performance measures. Primary:
HbA1c (< 7.0%), blood pressure (< 130/80 mmHg), and LDL cholesterol (< 100 mg/dL).
A composite research outcome of success was created by determining whether a participant achieved two of the three goals at the end of 9 months.
[71] Rubio-Valera
Dispensing /Adherence service
Spain/2013/6 months
n = 179; IG (n = 87) and CG (n = 92)
To evaluate the effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention (CPI) compared with usual care in improvement of adherence to antidepressants and patient well-being in a population initiating pharmacological treatment following diagnosis of depression. Primary:
Adherence to antidepressants, clinical severity of depression, health-related quality of life and satisfaction with pharmacy care.
[72] Stewart
Adherence service
Australia/2014/ 6 months
n = 395; IG (n = 207) and CG (n = 188)
To evaluate a community pharmacist intervention to improve adherence with antihypertensive medicines with a view to improving blood pressure (BP) control. Primary:
Change in proportion self-reporting medication adherence (validated questionnaire).
BP changes and the proportion of self-reporting adherence on the Tool for Adherence Behaviour Screening (TABS).
[73] Tommelein
Belgium/2013/ 3 months
n = 734; IG (n = 371), CG (n = 363)
To test the effectiveness of a pharmaceutical care programme in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in the community pharmacist educational intervention. Primary:
Improvement of the inhalation technique, and medication adherence,
Reduction of Dyspnoea, severe exacerbations and emergency visits or hospitalization.
Improvement of generic health status (quality of life) and disease- specific health status - COPD Assessment Test (CAT)-.
[74] Tsuyuki
Independent prescribing
Canada/2015/ 6 months
n = 248; IG (n = 181), CG (n = 67)
To study the impact of pharmacist prescribing on blood pressure (BP) control in community-dwelling patients. Primary:
Difference in change of systolic BP from baseline to 6 months between IG and CG.
Change in diastolic BP. Number of: patients at their target BP after 6 months, new antihypertensive medication, dose changes, drug changes, new prescriptions for ASA and cholesterol lowering medications.
[75] Verdoorn
Netherlands/2019/ 6 months
n = 629; IG (n = 315) and CG (n = 314)
To investigate the effect of a patient -centred CMR, focused on personal goals, on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), and on number of health problems. Primary:
HR-QoL (assessed with EuroQoL [EQ]-5D-5L and EQ-Visual Analogue Scale [VAS])
Number of health problems, after 3 and 6 months.
Number of: long-term medications, prescribed drugs added and ceased. Severity of complaints measured with VAS scores and healthcare consumption.
[76] Zillich
Telephone MTM
USA/2014/ 3 months
n = 961; IG (n = 475) and CG (n = 486)
To evaluate the effectiveness of a telephonic MTM service on reducing hospitalizations among home health patients. Primary:
60-day all-cause hospitalization.
The effect of hospitalization while adjusting for patients’ baseline risk. Number of medications taken daily. DRP identified. Pharmacist’s recommendations. Physician’s response.