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Table 2 Presence of comorbidity and the association with burden and readmission outcomes (Victoria, age 15 years and over)

From: Australian Injury Comorbidity Indices (AICIs) to predict burden and readmission among hospital-admitted injury patients

Comorbidity Index admission LOS (n = 140,094) Index hospital admission cost (n = 104,609)
n (%) Index LOS (mean, 95% CI) Adjusted ORa,b (95% CI) IRRc,d (95% CI) Coste (mean, 95% CI) Adjusted beta coefficient(95% CI)
HIV/AIDS 54 (0.0) 11.1 (5.0–17.1) 1.05 (0.53–2.11) 1.11 (0.85–1.44) 13,064.9 (6672.5–19,457.4) 0.40 (0.12–0.68)
Alcohol dependence 6425 (4.6) 7.1 (6.6–7.6) 1.38 (1.29–1.48) 1.17 (1.14–1.20) 8927.3 (8464.9–9389.7) 0.20 (0.17–0.23)
Drug dependence 1496 (1.1) 8.1 (7.0–9.2) 2.34 (2.01–2.72) 1.56 (1.49–1.64) 11,228.8 (10,195.1–12,262.4) 0.47 (0.41–0.52)
Any malignancy 706 (0.5) 21.2 (19.5–22.8) 6.15 (3.09–12.22) 1.56 (1.40–1.73) 23,110.8 (21,132.8–25,088.8) 0.65 (0.52–0.78)
Blood loss anemia 170 (0.1) 24.7 (21.0–28.5) 5.56 (1.71–18.08) 1.40 (1.20–1.63) 29,192.2 (24,390.9–33,993.4) 0.61 (0.44–0.77)
Cardiac arrhythmias 3775 (2.7) 19.0 (18.2–19.8) 2.44 (2.14–2.79) 1.32 (1.28–1.36) 20,572.8 (19,549.5–21,596.0) 0.48 (0.44–0.51)
Cerebrovascular disease 602 (0.4) 24.2 (21.0–27.5) 1.74 (1.08–2.79) 1.18 (1.08–1.29) 23,691.7 (21,388.4–25,995.0) 0.19 (0.08–0.30)
Chronic pulmonary disease 1302 (0.9) 22.8 (21.3–24.2) 6.24 (4.22–9.22) 1.46 (1.38–1.54) 26,770.7 (24,643.6–28,897.8) 0.57 (0.51–0.64)
Coagulopathy 1133 (0.8) 18.9 (17.1–20.8) 3.73 (2.79–4.98) 1.43 (1.35–1.51) 22,255.5 (19,748.4–24,762.6) 0.49 (0.43–0.56)
Congestive heart failure 1257 (0.9) 24.8 (23.5–26.2) 6.84 (4.14–11.30) 1.27 (1.20–1.34) 26,944.0 (25,240.2–28,647.9) 0.38 (0.31–0.44)
Deficiency anemias 578 (0.4) 24.1 (21.9–26.2) 8.56 (4.65–15.75) 1.62 (1.50–1.76) 22,380.0 (20,429.5–24,330.5) 0.66 (0.56–0.75)
Dementia 2889 (2.1) 16.2 (15.5–16.9) 1.99 (1.70–2.34) 1.05 (1.02–1.09) 16,671.0 (15,968.2–17,373.8) 0.16 (0.11–0.20)
Depression 2966 (2.1) 9.2 (8.6–9.9) 3.25 (2.89–3.65) 1.93 (1.86–2.01) 10,987.7 (10,125.5–11,849.9) 0.63 (0.59–0.67)
Diabetes with chronic complications 4243 (3.0) 18.6 (17.9–19.4) 1.42 (1.26–1.60) 1.27 (1.23–1.31) 19,104.6 (18,238.8–19,970.5) 0.26 (0.22–0.30)
Diabetes without complications 8969 (6.4) 12.0 (11.5–12.4) 1.20 (1.13–1.28) 1.12 (1.09–1.14) 12,223.6 (11,710.2–12,737.0) 0.10 (0.07–0.12)
Hemiplegia/paraplegia 538 (0.4) 25.7 (22.3–29.1) 4.14 (2.51–6.83) 1.61 (1.47–1.78) 25,975.1 (22,961.5–28,988.6) 0.60 (0.49–0.71)
Hypertension complicated 54 (0.0) 25.4 (17.6–33.1) O 1.41 (1.09–1.82) 28,041.4 (20,243.3–35,839.6) 0.48 (0.20–0.76)
Hypertension uncomplicated 4510 (3.2) 21.5 (20.7–22.2) 2.45 (2.11–2.84) 1.26 (1.22–1.30) 22,582.5 (21,702.8–23,462.3) 0.41 (0.37–0.45)
Hypothyroidism 152 (0.1) 21.3 (17.3–25.3) 21.00 (2.89–152.81) 1.72 (1.48–1.99) 22,116.8 (17,862.1–26,371.5) 0.56 (0.38–0.74)
Metastatic solid tumor 380 (0.3) 20.4 (18.3–22.5) 1.39 (0.54–3.57) 1.32 (1.15–1.52) 22,163.4 (19,616.7–24,710.1) 0.16 (−0.02–0.33)
Mild liver disease 1167 (0.8) 10.5 (9.4–11.7) 1.63 (1.37–1.93) 1.27 (1.20–1.34) 13,166.4 (11,933.4–14,399.4) 0.31 (0.25–0.38)
Moderate or severe liver disease 116 (0.1) 20.2 (15.1–25.3) 20.59 (2.83–149.95) 1.83 (1.54–2.19) 25,608.6 (19,508.8–31,708.4) 0.81 (0.60–1.01)
Myocardial infarction 248 (0.2) 23.9 (21.0–26.8) 2.78 (1.11–6.96) 0.96 (0.85–1.09) 27,805.7 (24,266.1–31,345.4) 0.24 (0.10–0.38)
Obesity 229 (0.2) 27.9 (22.6–33.2) 4.39 (2.26–8.54) 2.10 (1.85–2.39) 29,539.4 (23,323.0–35,755.7) 0.80 (0.65–0.95)
Peptic ulcer disease 84 (0.1) 20.3 (14.4–26.2) 1.96 (0.90–4.29) 1.55 (1.25–1.92) 23,885.5 (15,681.1–32,089.8) 0.66 (0.40–0.91)
Peripheral vascular disease 702 (0.5) 17.2 (15.4–19.1) 3.10 (2.34–4.11) 1.88 (1.76–2.02) 19,444.2 (17,341.6–21,546.9) 0.75 (0.66–0.83)
Psychoses 568 (0.4) 20.2 (17.2–23.1) 5.54 (3.96–7.74) 3.14 (2.91–3.39) 22,213.8 (19,103.3–25,324.3) 1.04 (0.95–1.13)
Pulmonary circulation disorders 133 (0.1) 33.6 (28.0–39.2) 9.06 (1.24–66.43) 1.81 (1.52–2.16) 39,206.1 (30,612.7–47,799.5) 0.79 (0.58–0.99)
Renal disease including renal failure 3402 (2.4) 22.3 (21.5–23.2) 1.54 (1.29–1.84) 1.16 (1.11–1.20) 22,865.3 (21,879.6–23,851.0) 0.20 (0.15–0.24)
Rheumatic disease including some other connective tissue disorders 177 (0.1) 25.4 (21.7–29.1) 31.75 (4.41–228.88) 1.93 (1.66–2.23) 27,277.3 (22,034.9–32,519.7) 0.84 (0.66–1.02)
Valvular disease 326 (0.2) 27.9 (24.8–31.0) 5.23 (2.27–12.02) 1.36 (1.22–1.52) 28,473.9 (24,958.1–31,989.7) 0.41 (0.28–0.55)
Comorbidity Readmissions (n = 136,670)
n (%) All-cause 30-day readmission Non-planned 30-day readmission
beta coefficienta (95% CI) % with condition that had the outcome Adjusted ORa (95% CI) % with condition that had the outcome Adjusted ORa
(95% CI)
HIV/AIDS 53 (0.0) 20.8 1.50 (0.76–2.95) 20.8 2.57 (1.31–5.06)
Alcohol dependence 6119 (4.5) 15.3 1.22 (1.13–1.31) 11.4 1.34 (1.23–1.46)
Drug dependence 1350 (1.0) 16.0 1.27 (1.09–1.48) 12.9 1.45 (1.23–1.72)
Any malignancy 561 (0.4) 44.0 3.45 (2.71–4.40) 20.7 1.64 (1.21–2.23)
Blood loss anemia 159 (0.1) 22.0 1.20 (0.81–1.77) 14.5 1.09 (0.69–1.72)
Cardiac arrhythmias 3480 (2.5) 18.2 1.06 (0.97–1.16) 13.4 1.10 (0.99–1.22)
Cerebrovascular disease 545 (0.4) 19.1 1.08 (0.83–1.40) 14.3 1.08 (0.81–1.45)
Chronic pulmonary disease 1176 (0.9) 23.0 1.40 (1.21–1.61) 18.2 1.60 (1.37–1.86)
Coagulopathy 1032 (0.8) 23.5 1.43 (1.23–1.66) 18.1 1.53 (1.30–1.81)
Congestive heart failure 1048 (0.8) 24.0 1.20 (1.03–1.40) 19.3 1.34 (1.14–1.58)
Deficiency anemias 550 (0.4) 24.0 1.28 (1.05–1.58) 18.7 1.42 (1.13–1.77)
Dementia 2663 (1.9) 15.5 0.89 (0.79–0.99) 13.3 1.12 (1.00–1.26)
Depression 2877 (2.1) 18.8 1.36 (1.23–1.52) 11.8 1.14 (1.01–1.30)
Diabetes with chronic complications 3978 (2.9) 23.9 1.24 (1.13–1.35) 16.9 1.29 (1.16–1.43)
Diabetes without complications 8655 (6.3) 17.2 1.18 (1.11–1.25) 12.1 1.21 (1.13–1.30)
Hemiplegia/paraplegia 494 (0.4) 18.6 1.17 (0.89–1.54) 13.8 1.20 (0.88–1.63)
Hypertension complicated 42 (0.0) 40.5 1.89 (1.01–3.55) 21.4 1.30 (0.61–2.76)
Hypertension uncomplicated 4165 (3.0) 22.0 1.05 (0.96–1.15) 16.0 1.13 (1.02–1.25)
Hypothyroidism 148 (0.1) 17.6 0.93 (0.61–1.44) 14.9 1.15 (0.73–1.83)
Metastatic solid tumor 287 (0.2) 46.3 1.37 (0.98–1.92) 22.6 1.50 (0.99–2.26)
Mild liver disease 1055 (0.8) 21.5 1.65 (1.41–1.93) 17.3 1.84 (1.55–2.18)
Moderate or severe liver disease 90 (0.1) 30.0 1.45 (0.90–2.32) 23.3 1.41 (0.84–2.36)
Myocardial infarction 197 (0.1) 21.8 1.08 (0.76–1.53) 18.3 1.21 (0.83–1.76)
Obesity 219 (0.2) 20.1 1.34 (0.95–1.89) 16.4 1.59 (1.10–2.31)
Peptic ulcer disease 70 (0.1) 17.1 0.96 (0.51–1.82) 7.1 0.54 (0.21–1.36)
Peripheral vascular disease 673 (0.5) 19.5 1.37 (1.12–1.67) 12.9 1.30 (1.03–1.64)
Psychoses 536 (0.4) 21.6 1.64 (1.33–2.03) 15.1 1.56 (1.22–1.99)
Pulmonary circulation disorders 120 (0.1) 20.8 0.94 (0.59–1.49) 15.0 0.89 (0.53–1.51)
Renal disease including renal failure 3042 (2.2) 30.0 1.92 (1.73–2.12) 20.2 1.56 (1.39–1.76)
Rheumatic disease including some other connective tissue disorders 168 (0.1) 22.0 1.39 (0.95–2.02) 15.5 1.46 (0.95–2.24)
Valvular disease 290 (0.2) 19.3 1.03 (0.76–1.39) 14.5 1.08 (0.77–1.51)
  1. Notes
  2. a Adjusted with baseline model - see Table 3 footnotes for baseline model details
  3. b Outcome=at least one overnight stay
  4. c Patients with same day separations (n=40819) excluded from the 140094 (adult patients) (n=99275)
  5. d Outcome=LOS for those who had at least one overnight stay but <= 30 days (n=8472 patients excluded from 99275)
  6. e Based on patients with complete cost data
  7. f O=Omitted as all cases had the outcome
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