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Table 5 Predictors of annual direct medical costs for patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke attending two major hospitals in Cameroon, 2013–2017

From: Estimation and determinants of direct medical costs of ischaemic heart disease, stroke and hypertensive heart disease: evidence from two major hospitals in Cameroon

Ischaemic stroke
Variable Univariate models
β (95% CI)
Model 1
β (95% CI)
Model 2
β (95% CI)
Age, per year increase 0.008 (0.002, 0.014)* 0.007 (0.001, 0.014)* 0.003 (−0.002, 0.008)
Sex (Reference: Female)
Male −0.124 (− 0.283, 0.034) −0.095 (− 0.254, 0.064) −0.077 (− 0.201, 0.048)
History of hypertension (Reference: No)
Yes −0.142 (− 0.332, 0.048) −0.175 (− 0.364, 0.014) −0.143 (− 0.295, 0.009)
History of diabetes (Reference: No)
Yes 0.203 (0.033, 0.373)* 0.209 (0.040, 0.378)* 0.188 (0.052, 0.324)*
History of atrial fibrillation (Reference: No)
Yes 0.096 (−0.136, 0.328) 0.052 (−0.179, 0.284) − 0.074 (− 0.256, 0.109)
History of CVD event (Reference: No)
Yes 0.048 (−0.126, 0.222) 0.026 (− 0.149, 0.202) 0.023 (− 0.113, 0.160)
Intercept    12.128 (11.775, 12.481)**
Haemorrhagic stroke
Variable Univariate models
β (95% CI)
Model 1
β (95% CI)
Model 2
β (95% CI)
Age, per year increase −0.004 (−0.012, 0.005) −0.003 (− 0.012, 0.006) 0.001 (− 0.006, 0.009)
Sex (Reference: Female)
Male 0.088 (−0.130, 0.305) 0.070 (− 0.154, 0.293) 0.042 (− 0.155, 0.238)
History of hypertension (Reference: No)
Yes 0.315 (0.057, 0.687)* 0.316 (0.059, 0.692)* −0.230 (− 0.560, 0.100)
History of diabetes (Reference: No)
Yes 0.227 (−0.023, 0.477) 0.249 (−0.004, 0.502) 0.140 (− 0.088, 0.368)
History of atrial fibrillation (Reference: No)
Yes 0.201 (−0.425, 0.828) 0.216 (−0.419, 0.851) − 0.062 (− 0.647, 0.523)
History of CVD event (Reference: No)
Yes −0.063 (− 0.318, 0.192) −0.070 (− 0.326, 0.187) 0.098 (− 0.138, 0.333)
Intercept    12.575 (11.935, 13.214)**
  1. Parameter estimates from Generalized Linear models with gamma distribution and Log-link function. Model 1: Univariate models + adjusted for age and sex, Model 2: Multivariate model adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation & previous CVD event and hospital attended. * < 0.05, ** < 0.01, ** < 0.001
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