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Table 4 Predictors of annual direct medical costs for patients with ischaemic and hypertensive heart diseases attending two major hospitals in Cameroon, 2013–2017

From: Estimation and determinants of direct medical costs of ischaemic heart disease, stroke and hypertensive heart disease: evidence from two major hospitals in Cameroon

Ischaemic heart disease
Variable Univariate models
β (95% CI)
Model 1
β (95% CI)
Model 2
β (95% CI)
Age, per year increase − 0.014 (− 0.032, 0.003) − 0.012 (− 0.030, 0.005) − 0.006 (− 0.017, 0.006)
Sex (Reference: Female)
Male 0.313 (− 0.054, 0.681) 0.269 (− 0.102, 0.640) 0.025 (− 0.247, 0.297)
History of hypertension (Reference: No)
Yes 0.319 (0.077, 0.716)* 0.352 (0.041, 0.746)* 0.070 (− 0.238, 0.378)
History of diabetes (Reference: No)
Yes 0.223 (−0.246, 0.691) 0.370 (− 0.096, 0.836) 0.435 (0.098, 0.772)*
History of atrial fibrillation (Reference: No)
Yes −1.465 (−2.698, − 0.232)* − 1.489 (− 2.716, − 0.263)* −0.485 (− 1.361, 0.390)
History of CVD event (Reference: No)
Yes −0.611 (− 0.973, − 0.249)** −0.630 (− 0.993, − 0.268)** − 0.429 (− 0.705, − 0.153)**
Intercept    14.841 (14.125, 15.557)***
Hypertensive heart disease
Variable Univariate models
β (95% CI)
Model 1
β (95% CI)
Model 2
β (95% CI)
Age, per year increase −0.001 (− 0.007, 0.005) − 0.001 (− 0.008, 0.005) −0.003 (− 0.007, 0.002)
Sex (Reference: Female)
Male −0.047 (− 0.219, 0.126) −0.051 (− 0.224, 0.123) −0.012 (− 0.128, 0.105)
History of diabetes (Reference: No)
Yes 0.387 (0.174, 0.600)*** 0.389 (0.176, 0.603)*** 0.229 (0.080, 0.378)**
History of atrial fibrillation (Reference: No)
Yes 0.328 (0.040, 0.617)* 0.377 (0.075, 0.679)* 0.020 (− 0.191, 0.231)
History of CVD event (Reference: No)
Yes −0.175 (− 0.348, − 0.002)* −0.173 (− 0.348, 0.001) −0.081 (− 0.200, 0.037)
Intercept    12.318 (12.017, 12.619)***
  1. Parameter estimates from Generalized Linear models with gamma distribution and Log-link function. Model 1: Univariate models + adjusted for age and sex, Model 2: Multivariate model adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation & previous CVD event and hospital attended. * < 0.05, ** < 0.01, ** < 0.001
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