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Table 3 Ambulatory care patterns overall and stratified by race and socioeconomic statusa

From: Differences in ambulatory care fragmentation by race

  Number of visits, mean (sd) Number of providers, mean (sd) Percentage of visits with the most frequently seen provider (N = 6799) Fragmentation Score,b
mean (sd) (N = 6799)
Total (N = 6799) Primary Care (N = 6741) Specialty Care (N = 6741) Total (N = 6799) Primary Care (N = 6741) Specialty Care (N = 6741)
Overall 11.7 (7.1) 5.5 (4.4) 6.2 (5.0) 4.9 (2.4) 1.6 (1.1) 3.2 (2.0) 0.47 (0.17) 0.73 (0.16)
By race
 Black 12.0 (7.0) 6.0 (4.5) 5.8 (4.8) 4.7 (2.4) 1.7 (1.2) 2.9 (1.9) 0.49 (0.17) 0.71 (0.17)
 White 11.6 (7.1) 5.3 (4.3) 6.3 (5.1) 5.0 (2.4) 1.6 (1.0) 3.4 (2.0) 0.46 (0.17) 0.75 (0.16)
By income
  < $35,000 12.0 (7.1) 5.8 (4.5) 6.0 (5.0) 4.8 (2.4) 1.7 (1.0) 3.1 (2.0) 0.48 (0.17) 0.72 (0.17)
  ≥ $35,000 11.3 (6.7) 5.0 (4.1) 6.2 (4.9) 5.0 (2.4) 1.6 (1.0) 3.4 (2.0) 0.46 (0.16) 0.75 (0.15)
By education
  ≤ High school 12.0 (7.1) 5.9 (4.5) 6.0 (4.9) 4.8 (2.4) 1.7 (1.1) 3.1 (1.9) 0.48 (0.17) 0.72 (0.17)
  ≥ Some college 11.5 (7.0) 5.2 (4.2) 6.3 (5.0) 5.0 (2.4) 1.6 (1.0) 3.4 (2.0) 0.46 (0.17) 0.74 (0.16)
  1. aThe total sample size and the sample sizes for ambulatory care patterns by primary care vs. specialty care are slightly different, because some participants had care patterns with missing provider specialty. All pairwise comparisons within demographic characteristic are statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  2. bFragmentation Index is the reversed Bice-Boxerman Index (0.01 to 0.99); higher scores reflect more fragmentation
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