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Table 5 Odd ratios and 95% CI of factors associated with early timing of ANC visits (<= 3 months gestation) in Nigeria, Mali, Guinea and Zambia (DHS 2018)

From: Examining barriers to healthcare access and utilization of antenatal care services: evidence from demographic health surveys in sub-Saharan Africa

Variable Nigeria (N=6709) Mali (N=1973) Guinea (N=1690) Zambia (N=1570)
cOR
(95% CI)
aOR
(95% CI)
aOR
(95% CI)
aOR (95% CI) cOR
(95% CI)
aOR
(95% CI)
aOR(95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Getting permission to visit the health facility
 Big problem Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Not a big problem 1.32(0.99–1.18) 1.02(0.74–1.39) 1.62(1.25–2.12)*** 1.05(0.73–1.52) 1.63(1.20–2.22)** 1.62(1.15–2.33)** 0.62(0.40–0.97)** 0.67(0.42–1.07)
Getting money needed for treatment
 Big problem Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Not a big problem 1.36(1.16–1.59)*** 1.14(0.95–1.37) 1.94(1.55–2.43)*** 1.38(1.03–1.92)** 1.20(0.94–1.54) 0.77(0.58–1.03) 0.87(0.65–1.16) 1.10(0.80–1.51)
Distance to health facility
 Big problem Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Not a big problem 1.26(1.04–1.52)** 0.90(0.70–1.14) 1.67(1.31–2.12)*** 1.04(0.71–1.51) 1.48(1.11–1.98)** 1.08(0.73–1.60) 0.78(0.61–1.01) 0.94(0.69–1.27)
Not wanting to go alone
 Big Problem Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Not a big problem 1.16(0.92–1.45) 0.90(0.69–1.18) 1.57(1.18–2.10)** 0.87(0.58–1.32) 1.39(1.05–1.84)** 1.06(0.73–1.53) 0.77(0.54–1.11) 1.02(0.66–1.57)
Age at child birth (years)
 ≤19 Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 20–24 1.33(1.02–1.74)** 1.20(0.90–1.58) 0.99(0.71–1.37) 1.21(0.84–1.74) 1.33(0.87–2.04) 1.31(0.83–2.08) 1.09(0.72–1.65) 1.13(0.73–1.75)
 25–29 1.42(1.08–1.86)** 1.32(0.96–1.82) 0.79(0.55–1.12) 1.21(0.78–1.86) 1.17(0.80–1.72) 1.19(0.75–1.88) 0.73(0.47–1.12) 0.86(0.49–1.53)
 30–34 1.46(1.09–1.95)** 1.48(0.98–2.24) 0.65(0.45–0.95)** 1.17(0.69–2.01) 1.39(0.94–2.07) 1.55(0.94–2.56) 0.71(0.46–1.10) 0.96(0.51–1.78)
 35–39 1.13(0.82–1.56) 1.33(0.88–2.01) 0.84(0.55–1.27) 1.69(0.95–3.01) 1.04(0.67–1.61) 1.13(0.63–2.02) 0.51(0.29–0.91)** 0.74(0.38–1.44)
 ≥40 0.72(0.47–1.10) 1.11(0.65–1.90) 0.51(0.29–0.92)** 1.10(0.55–2.22) 0.93(0.48–1.79) 0.99(0.40–2.45) 0.64(0.37–1.11) 0.81(0.36–1.79)
Residence
 Urban Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Rural 0.55(0.46–0.66)*** 0.34(0.83–1.24) 0.43(0.33–0.55)*** 1.53(1.03–2.26)** 0.53(0.49–0.74)*** 1.30(0.81–2.08) 1.75(1.30–2.42)*** 1.99(1.29–3.08)**
Religion
 Christians Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Muslim 0.35(0.29–0.42)*** 0.56(0.44–0.71)*** 1.12(0.65–1.93) 1.30(0.71–2.37) 4.04(2.04–8.03)*** 3.80(1.94–7.45)*** 0.76(0.18–3.12) 0.73(0.17–3.06)
 Others 0.25(0.05–1.22) 0.35(0.08–1.62) 0.68(0.32–1.43) 1.32(0.61–2.82) 1.63(0.53–5.02) 1.53(0.50–4.68) 1.30(0.34–4.99) 1.60(0.35–7.31)
Birth order
 1–2 Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 3–4 0.74(0.62–0.88)** 0.76(0.61–0.94)** 0.68(0.53–0.88)** 0.73(0.53–1.01) 0.95(0.73–1.25) 0.93(0.66–1.30) 0.73(0.56–0.95)** 0.78(0.56–1.009)
 ≥5 0.42(0.34–0.51)*** 0.56(0.41–0.78)** 0.46(0.35–0.59)*** 0.61(0.40–0.93)** 0.96(0.73–1.25) 1.07(0.69–1.66) 0.61(0.45–0.84)** 0.66(0.39–1.11)
Pregnancy intention
 No (later/no more) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Yes (then) 1.13(0.88–1.46) 1.54(1.19–1.99)** 1.77(1.33–2.37)*** 1.70(1.27–2.29)*** 1.10(0.79–1.54) 1.10(0.78–1.54) 1.08(0.83–1.40) 1.00(0.77–1.30)
Polygyny
 Monogamous Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Polygamous as first wife 0.42(0.31–0.56)*** 0.88(0.64–1.20) 0.51(0.36–0.71)*** 0.73(0.49–1.07) 0.90(0.59–1.34) 0.96(0.62–1.50) 1.23(0.62–2.46) 1.78(0.76–1.30)
 Polygamous as 2nd or higher 0.54(0.43–0.68)*** 0.89(0.69–1.15) 1.05(0.83–1.33) 1.29(0.99–1.69) 0.88(0.64–1.22) 0.85(0.60–1.20) 1.23(0.63–2.39) 1.19(0.60–2.35)
Wealth quintiles
 Poorest Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Poorer 2.02(1.54–2.65)*** 1.70(1.29–2.25)*** 1.145(0.78–1.68) 1.13(0.76–1.67) 1.65(1.12–2.32)** 1.62(1.1–2.37)** 0.70(0.51–0.96)** 0.72(0.52–1.01)
 Middle 2.85(2.16–3.78)*** 2.01(1.46–2.76)*** 1.62(1.14–2.29)** 1.51(1.05–2.18)** 2.02(1.32–3.08)** 1.99(1.29–3.07)** 0.57(0.40–0.80)** 0.73(0.51–1.04)
 Richer 3.35(2.53–4.43)*** 1.99(1.41–2.81)*** 2.48(1.75–3.53)*** 2.01(1.35–3.00)** 2.93(1.93–4.46)*** 2.68(1.62–4.44)** 0.48(0.31–0.74)** 0.83(0.48–1.44)
 Richest 6.65(4.99–8.87)*** 3.21(2.12–4.85)*** 5.53(3.79–8.06)*** 4.04(2.28–7.17)*** 4.05(2.49–6.59)*** 3.55(1.87–6.73)** 0.64(0.44–0.94)** 1.22(0.67–2.23)
Covered by Health Insurance
 No Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Yes 1.59(0.98–2.57) 0.88(0.53–1.47) 5.24(2.83–9.71)*** 1.77(0.92–3.39) 2.10(0.67–6.52) 0.92(0.26–3.30) 0.81(0.32–2.04) 0.71(0.26–1.97)
Husband level of education
 No education Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Primary 2.32(1.72–3.13)*** 1.60(1.16–2.21)** 1.85(1.37–2.51)*** 1.56(1.11–2.18)** 0.96(0.56–1.65) 0.85(0.50–1.47) 0.83(0.49–1.41) 0.79(0.47–1.35)
 Secondary 3.52(2.70–4.58)*** 1.72(1.24–2.38)** 3.02(2.21–4.10)*** 1.88(1.30–2.72)** 1.52(1.09–2.11)** 1.32(0.93–1.86) 0.68(0.39–1.17) 0.71(0.41–1.22)
 Higher 3.68(2.73–4.96)*** 1.56(1.05–2.31)** 8.38(4.18–16.79)*** 3.21(1.52–6.78)** 2.71(1.74–4.23)*** 1.94(1.23–3.07)** 0.92(0.48–1.75) 1.06(0.49–2.33)
Difference in age between husband and wife
 Wife older or same age Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) 0.94(0.38–2.36) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Husband 1–5 years older 1.41(0.77–2.59) 1.55(0.82–2.95) 0.46(0.23–0.94)** 0.48(0.23–0.99)** 0.79(0.55–1.15) 0.98(0.35–2.79) 1.80(0.94–3.43) 1.51(0.87–2.66)
 Husband 6–10 years older 1.07(0.60–1.94) 1.49(0.80–2.75) 0.53(0.26–1.07)** 0.58(0.28–1.21) 0.84(0.63–1.11) 0.77(0.51–1.15) 1.51(0.78–2.91) 1.39(0.78–2.48)
 Husband >  10 years older 0.95(0.53–1.71) 1.67(0.90–3.10) 0.61(0.31–1.21) 0.61(0.30–1.26) Reference (1.0) 0.80(0.60–1.09) 2.17(1.06–4.48) 2.02(1.05–3.86)**
  1. ***p< 0.001,**p< 0.05,*p< 0.10
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