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Table 4 Odd ratios and 95% CI of factors associated with ≥ 8 ANC visits in Nigeria, Mali, Guinea and Zambia (DHS 2018)

From: Examining barriers to healthcare access and utilization of antenatal care services: evidence from demographic health surveys in sub-Saharan Africa

Variable Nigeria (N=6761) Mali (N=1973) Guinea (N=1690) Zambia (N=1570)
cOR(95% CI) aOR(95% CI) cOR(95% CI) aOR (95% CI) cOR(95% CI) aOR(95% CI) cOR(95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Getting permission to visit the health facility
 Big problem Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Not a big problem 1.16(0.47–0.91) 0.71(0.51–1.02) 3.89(1.50–10.11)*** 2.20(0.61–7.91) 3.49(1.35–8.99)** 2.99(0.89–10.01) 0.43(0.11–1.73) 0.22(0.06–0.79)**
Getting money needed for treatment
 Big problem Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Not a big problem 1.38(1.10–1.72)** 1.38(1.11–1.73)** 3.75(1.92–7.33)*** 1.33(0.52–3.44) 1.89(0.94–3.79) 0.54(0.22–1.29) 0.63(00.21–1.92) 0.97(0.34–2.79)
Distance to health facility
 Big Problem Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Not a big problem 0.66(0.51–0.86)** 0.73(0.55–0.97)** 3.55(1.56–8.04)** 1.85(0.87–3.93) 4.86(2.21–10.8)*** 2.96(0.96–9.07) 0.61(0.26–1.45) 0.25(0.06–1.06)
Not wanting to go alone
 Big Problem Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Not a big problem 1.14(0.91–1.44) 0.77(0.57–1.04) 2.22(0.98–5.07) 0.42(0.20–0.90)** 2.91(1.21–699)** 0.72(0.23–2.28) 1.64(0.45–6.03) 2.58(0.55–12.00)
Age at child birth (years)
 ≤19 Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 20–24 1.62(1.09–2.39)** 1.61(1.09–2.38)** 0.80(0.36–1.79) 0.72(0.30–1.70) 1.54(0.62–3.83) 1.59(0.64–3.98) 0.51(0.14–1.86) 0.42(0.13–1.34)
 25–29 2.26(1.50–3.41)*** 2.26(1.50–3.40)*** 0.58(0.27–1.24) 0.68(0.27–1.76) 1.62(0.63–4.14) 2.41(0.84–6.87) 0.24(0.06–0.91)* 0.55(0.11–2.78)
 30–34 3.04(1.96–4.70)*** 3.02(1.95–4.67)*** 0.38(0.15–0.97)** 0.59(0.16–2.14) 1.31(0.47–3.63) 2.29(0.62–8.43) 0.49(0.11–2.18) 1.88(0.55–6.42)
 35–39 2.92(1.82–4.68)*** 2.90(1.81–4.64)*** 0.73(0.27–1.93) 1.78(0.43–7.41) 0.33(0.06–1.70) 1.30(0.117–9.79) 0.02(0.03–0.19)** 0.26(0.02–4.15)
 ≥40 3.01(1.67–5.40)*** 3.00(1.67–5.39)*** 0.35(0.07–1.79) 1.15(0.14–9.29) 0.71(0.14–3.70) 3.74(0.43–32.48) 0.46(0.09–2.38) 17.94(2.94–109.29)**
Place of residence
 Urban Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Rural 0.24(0.20–0.29)*** 0.24(0.14–0.42)*** 0.25(0.14–0.45)*** 0.87(0.40–1.88) 0.14(0.07–0.28)*** 0.56(0.20–1.58) 0.90(0.32–2.54) 0.89(0.19–4.11)
Religion
 Christians Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Muslim 0.20(0.16–0.24)*** 0.44(0.34–0.56)*** 1.83(0.27–12.55) 2.86(0.46–17.70) 0.45(0.20–0.99)*** 0.24(0.11–0.52)*** 2.44(0.27–21.80) 4.59(0.56–37.99)
 Others 0.18(0.03–0.91)** 0.30(0.07–1.64) 0.83(0.05–12.82) 3.56(0.20–62.39) 1.00(0.33–3.02) 0.85(0.19–3.89) 0.42(0.05–3.40) 0.40(0.03–5.62)
Birth order
 1–2 Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 3–4 0.75(0.62–0.90)** 0.67(0.54–0.84)*** 0.65(0.34–1.24) 0.79(0.36–1.76) 0.94(0.51–1.72) 0.77(0.48–1.58) 0.13(0.03–0.55)** 0.04(0.10–0.20)***
 ≥5 0.36(0.29–0.44)*** 0.42(0.30–0.60)*** 0.22(0.10–0.48)*** 0.25(0.06–0.98)** 0.18(0.07–0.51)*** 0.23(0.06–0.88)** 0.09(0.02–0.36)** 0.01(0.002–0.07)***
Pregnancy intention
 No (later/no more) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Yes (then) 0.68(0.55–0.85)** 1.04(0.79–1.35) 1.23(0.56–2.73) 0.94(0.40–2.18) 3.70(1.06–12.86)** 3.13(0.84–11.66) 0.91(0.35–2.36) 0.58(0.22–1.54)
Polygyny
 Monogamous Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Polygamous as first wife 0.23(0.15–0.34)*** 0.67(0.43–1.05) 0.55(0.23–1.32) 1.51(0.49–4.66) 0.14(0.02–1.04) 0.26(0.03–2.30) 4.42(0.94–2.89) 40.35(6.65–244.75)
 Polygamous as 2nd or higher 0.37(0.29–0.46)*** 0.93(0.71–1.23) 1.01(0.50–2.03) 1.79(0.81–3.96) 1.07(0.48–2.40) 1.44(0.57–3.65) 11.32(3.33–18.30)*** 15.6(0.50–23.10)***
Wealth quintiles
 Poorest Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Poorer 2.01(1.32–3.07)** 1.54(1.00–2.06) 1.23(0.27–5.51) 1.10(0.24–5.06) 0.32(0.04–2.89) 0.29(0.03–2.73) 1.78(0.41–7.8) 0.88(0.22–3.52)
 Middle 4.57(3.01–6.95)*** 2.35(1.50–3.69)*** 1.38(0.33–5.77) 1.09(0.22–5.41) 1.75(0.49–6.23) 1.17(0.31–4.38) 1.60(0.41–6.3) 0.95(0.24–3.81)
 Richer 9.71(6.38–14.79)*** 3.35(2.08–5.38)*** 3.31(0.90–12.14) 1.82(0.37–9.08) 5.11(1.65–15.82)** 1.90(0.48–7.52) 0.93(0.17–5.06) 0.56(0.09–3.64)
 Richest 21.31(14.06–32.29)*** 4.77(2.91–7.82)*** 11.40(3.29–39.53)*** 4.00(0.68–23.36) 11.46(4.15–31.63)*** 3.28(0.77–13.98) 2.82(0.67–11.80) 0.58(0.07–4.68)
Covered by Health Insurance
 No Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Yes 3.27(2.15–4.98)*** 1.36(0.86–2.16) 6.30(2.88–13.80)*** 1.68(0.63–4.52) 2.11(0.26–16.94) 0.50(0.04–6.55) 9.36(3.87–53.67)** 8.27(1.34–51.01)**
Husband level of education
 No education Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Primary 4.28(3.04–6.03)*** 2.06(1.41–3.09)*** 2.67(1.24–5.74)** 1.96(0.88–4.36) 0.57(0.12–2.59) 0.47(0.09–2.33) 3.88(0.42–35.44) 1.14(0.10–13.32)
 Secondary 7.79(5.73–10.60)*** 2.04(1.43–2.92)*** 4.34(2.18–8.65)*** 1.97(0.84–4.61) 2.11(0.90–4.91) 1.21(0.48–3.11) 10.51(1.34–82.3)** 5.54(0.65–47.35)
 Higher 10.59(7.60–14.75)*** 2.09(1.41–3.08)*** 12.77(5.28–30.90)*** 3.49(1.16–10.49)* 4.49(1.90–10.62)** 1.18(0.48–2.91) 33.49(3.62–309.03)** 18.67(1.31–267.00)**
Difference in age between husband and wife
 Wife older or same age Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) 5.36(0.09–15.2)*** 13.3(5.93–48.7)*** Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0)
 Husband 1–5 years older 1.01(0.61–1.71) 1.29(0.75–2.22) 0.40(0.11–1.41) 0.43(0.10–1.86) 0.96(0.43–2.17) 1.80(0.402.95) 1.39(0.29–6.77) 0.69(0.10–4.64)
 Husband 6–10 years older 0.60(0.35–1.02) 1.05(0.60–1.84) 0.31(0.08–1.13) 0.33(0.08–1.36) 0.82(0.42–1.61) 0.86(0.39–1.90) 0.86(0.16–4.70) 0.46(0.06–3.26)
 Husband >  10 years older 0.40(0.23–0.70)** 0.97(0.55–1.74) 0.36(0.11–1.21) 0.32(0.08–1.30) Reference (1.0) Reference (1.0) 0.52(0.05–5.98) 0.50(0.05–5.43)
  1. ***p< 0.001,**p< 0.05,*p< 0.10
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