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Table 3 Distribution and prevalence of at least 8 ANC visits and early timing of first ANC visit by barriers to healthcare access in Nigeria, Mali, Guinea and Zambia (DHS 2018)

From: Examining barriers to healthcare access and utilization of antenatal care services: evidence from demographic health surveys in sub-Saharan Africa

Variable Nigeria (N=6761) Mali (N=1973) Guinea (N=1690) Zambia (N=1570)
n(%) visit >=8 <=3 months n(%) visit >=8 <=3 months n(%) visit >=8 <=3 months n(%) visit >=8 <=3 months
Prevalence, % (95% CI) Prevalence, % (95% CI) Prevalence, % (95% CI) Prevalence, % (95% CI) Prevalence, % (95% CI) Prevalence, % (95% CI) Prevalence, % (95% CI) Prevalence, % (95% CI)
17.8(16.4–19.3) 17.6(16.3–18.9) 3.5(2.7–4.6) 35.5(32.8–38.3) 2.8(2.1–3.9) 26.3(23.5–29.4) 1.5(0.9–2.4) 38.5(35.0–42.1)
Getting permission to visit the health facility p = 0.318 p = 0.059   p= 0.003 p< 0.001   p=0.006 p=0.002   p=0.223 p=0.034
Big Problem 757(11.2) 0.16(0.12–0.20) 0.14(0.02–0.18) 570(28.9) 0.02(0.01–0.03) 0.28(0.23–0.33) 494(29.2) 0.02(0.01–0.03) 0.20(0.16–0.25) 88(5.6) 0.03(0.01–0.10) 0.50(0.38–0.61)
Not a big problem 6004(88.8) 0.18(0.16–0.20) 0.18(0.17–0.19) 1403(71.1) 0.04(0.03–0.06) 0.39(0.36–0.42) 1196(70.8) 0.04(0.03–0.05) 0.29(0.26–0.32) 1482(94.4) 0.02(0.01–0.03) 0.38(0.34–0.41)
Getting money needed for treatment p< 0.001 p< 0.001   p< 0.001 p< 0.001   p=0.068 p=0.143   p=0.411 p=0.340
Big Problem 3169(46.9) 0.14(0.12–0.16) 0.15(0.14–0.17) 838(42.5) 0.02(0.01–0.03) 0.27(0.23–0.31) 1076(63.6) 0.02(0.01–0.03) 0.25(0.22–0.29) 358(22.5) 0.02(0.01–0.05) 0.41(0.34–0.41)
Not a big problem 3592(53.1) 0.21(0.19–0.23) 0.20(0.18–0.21) 1135(57.5) 0.05(0.04–0.07) 0.42(0.39–0.45) 614(36.4) 0.03(0.02–0.04) 0.29(0.25–0.33) 1217(77.5) 0.02(0.01–0.03) 0.38(0.35–0.42)
Distance to health facility P = 0.005 P = 0.014   P= 0.001 p< 0.001   p< 0.001 p=0.007   p=0.257 p=0.056
Big Problem 1929(28.5) 0.15(0.13–0.17) 0.15(0.13–0.17) 596(30.3) 0.02(0.01–0.03) 0.28(0.24–0.32) 858(50.8) 0.02(0.1–0.03) 0.23(0.19–0.26) 584(37.2) 0.02(0.01–0.04) 0.42(0.37–0.48)
Not a big problem 4832(71.5) 0.19(0.17–0.21) 0.19(0.17–0.20) 1374(69.7) 0.05(0.03–0.06) 0.39(0.36–0.42) 832(49.2) 0.05(0.03–0.07) 0.30(0.26–0.35) 986(62.8) 0.02(0.01–0.03) 0.36(0.32–0.40)
Not wanting to go alone P = 0.261 P = 0.208   P= 0.051 P=0.002   p= 0.013 p=0.022   P=0.448 p=0.158
Big Problem 1106(16.4) 0.16(0.14–0.19) 0.16(0.13–0.19) 427(21.6) 0.02(0.01–0.04) 0.28(0.23–0.33) 542(32.1) 0.02(0.01–0.03) 0.22(0.18–0.27) 240(15.3) 0.02(0.01–0.03) 0.44(0.36–0.52)
Not a big problem 5655(83.7) 0.18(0.16–0.19) 0.18(0.17–0.19) 1546(78.4) 0.04(0.03–0.05) 0.38(0.35–0.41) 148(67.9) 0.04(0.03–0.05) 0.28(0.25–0.32) 1330(84.7) 0.02(0.01–0.03) 0.38(0.34–0.41)
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