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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients according to completing 1-year pay-for-performance program or not

From: The effect of pay-for-performance program on infection events and mortality rate in diabetic patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study

Variable Data before matching Data after matching
P4P (n = 369,194) Non-P4P (n = 951,989) STD P4P (n = 337,184) Non- P4P (n = 337,184) STD
Age (years; mean ± SD) 60.9 ± 11.8 63.0 ± 13.5 − 0.17 61.0 ± 11.8 61.1 ± 12.9 < 0.01
Male 182,531 (49.4) 471,689 (49.5) < 0.01 166,940 (49.5) 166,928 (49.5) < 0.01
Urban level
 Low 41,918 (11.4) 113,792 (12.0) −0.02 37,964 (11.3) 37,115 (11.0) 0.01
 Moderate 121,999 (33.0) 295,819 (31.1) 0.04 110,255 (32.7) 109,306 (32.4) 0.01
 High 113,856 (30.8) 279,267 (29.3) 0.03 103,690 (30.8) 103,591 (30.7) < 0.01
 Very High 91,421 (24.8) 263,111 (27.6) −0.07 85,275 (25.3) 87,172 (25.9) −0.01
Monthly income, NTD
 0–17,880 84,853 (23.0) 260,210 (27.3) −0.10 78,630 (23.3) 78,457 (23.3) < 0.01
 17,881 – 22,800 151,438 (41.0) 374,004 (39.3) 0.04 137,209 (40.7) 136,259 (40.4) 0.01
  > 22,800 132,903 (36.0) 317,775 (33.4) 0.06 121,345 (36.0) 122,468 (36.3) −0.01
Diabetes duration (years) 5.8 ± 4.2 4.4 ± 3.8 0.36 5.5 ± 4.1 5.4 ± 4.1 0.03
Health care utilization in the previous year
 No. of outpatient visit of diabetes 14.4 ± 7.5 9.6 ± 8.1 0.62 13.8 ± 6.9 13.9 ± 8.7 − 0.02
 No. of outpatient visit 34.1 ± 21.2 31.9 ± 22.8 0.10 33.5 ± 20.9 33.5 ± 21.7 < 0.01
 No. of emergent room visit 0.37 ± 1.09 0.60 ± 1.81 − 0.16 0.37 ± 1.11 0.37 ± 0.99 0.01
 No. of hospitalization 0.21 ± 0.67 0.50 ± 1.25 − 0.29 0.22 ± 0.68 0.22 ± 0.63 0.01
Comorbidity
 COPD 15,402 (4.2) 64,115 (6.7) − 0.11 14,296 (4.2) 13,929 (4.1) 0.01
 Hypertension 216,200 (58.6) 555,549 (58.4) < 0.01 197,115 (58.5) 199,661 (59.2) −0.02
 PAOD 9503 (2.6) 22,965 (2.4) 0.01 8440 (2.5) 8237 (2.4) < 0.01
 Ischemic heart disease 48,383 (13.1) 151,326 (15.9) −0.08 44,215 (13.1) 44,268 (13.1) < 0.01
 VTE 573 (0.16) 3600 (0.38) −0.04 531 (0.2) 553 (0.2) < 0.01
 Dyslipidemia 198,296 (53.7) 331,620 (34.8) 0.39 174,589 (51.8) 177,147 (52.5) −0.02
 Auto-immune disease 1470 (0.40) 4537 (0.48) −0.01 1332 (0.4) 1229 (0.4) < 0.01
 Liver disease 55,012 (14.9) 131,221 (13.8) 0.03 50,036 (14.8) 50,954 (15.1) −0.01
 Liver cirrhosis 4738 (1.3) 22,978 (2.4) −0.08 4483 (1.3) 4338 (1.3) < 0.01
 Chronic kidney disease 62,472 (16.9) 118,749 (12.5) 0.13 52,110 (15.5) 49,095 (14.6) 0.03
 Dialysis 987 (0.27) 20,406 (2.1) −0.17 982 (0.3) 864 (0.3) 0.01
 Malignancy 17,569 (4.8) 63,038 (6.6) −0.08 16,312 (4.8) 16,194 (4.8) < 0.01
Charlson’s Comorbidity Index score 2.1 ± 1.4 2.1 ± 1.9 0.03 2.1 ± 1.4 2.1 ± 1.6 < 0.01
History of event
 Heart failure 8910 (2.4) 56,558 (5.9) −0.18 8391 (2.5) 8131 (2.4) < 0.01
 Ischemic stroke 23,773 (6.4) 112,059 (11.8) −0.19 22,222 (6.6) 21,623 (6.4) 0.01
 Hemorrhage stroke 2916 (0.79) 17,700 (1.9) −0.09 2782 (0.8) 2593 (0.8) 0.01
History of infection event
 Infection-related hospitalization in the previous year 16,698 (4.5) 103,888 (10.9) −0.24 15,856 (4.7) 15,119 (4.5) 0.01
 No. of infection-related hospitalization in the previous 3 years 0.19 ± 0.62 0.42 ± 1.33 −0.22 0.19 ± 0.63 0.18 ± 0.63 0.02
Medication
 NSAID 71,133 (19.3) 192,047 (20.2) −0.02 65,091 (19.3) 65,577 (19.4) < 0.01
 COX-II inhibitors 19,254 (5.2) 56,323 (5.9) −0.03 17,609 (5.2) 17,709 (5.3) < 0.01
 Aspirin 91,631 (24.8) 209,685 (22.0) 0.07 81,838 (24.3) 81,656 (24.2) < 0.01
 Clopidogrel 5910 (1.6) 27,195 (2.9) −0.09 5467 (1.6) 5309 (1.6) < 0.01
 Statin 149,217 (40.4) 231,072 (24.3) 0.35 128,993 (38.3) 128,449 (38.1) < 0.01
 Anticoagulant 2365 (0.64) 11,360 (1.2) −0.06 2200 (0.7) 2170 (0.6) < 0.01
 Steroid 9995 (2.7) 38,984 (4.1) −0.08 9267 (2.7) 9044 (2.7) < 0.01
Antidiabetic medication
 Metformin 262,652 (71.1) 501,270 (52.7) 0.39 238,004 (70.6) 247,512 (73.4) −0.06
 DDP4 inhibitors 39,894 (10.8) 43,154 (4.5) 0.24 31,211 (9.3) 28,355 (8.4) 0.03
 Sulfonylureas (SU) 228,801 (62.0) 476,608 (50.1) 0.24 208,035 (61.7) 215,388 (63.9) −0.05
 Thiazolidinedione 59,132 (16.0) 66,562 (7.0) 0.29 49,003 (14.5) 46,951 (13.9) 0.02
 Non-SU insulin secretagogues 26,464 (7.2) 51,341 (5.4) 0.07 23,150 (6.9) 23,284 (6.9) < 0.01
 Alpha glucosidase inhibitors 50,046 (13.6) 72,429 (7.6) 0.19 42,604 (12.6) 42,000 (12.5) 0.01
Insulin 46,794 (12.7) 47,945 (5.0) 0.27 34,747 (10.3) 28,952 (8.6) 0.06
Follow-up (years; mean ± SD) 4.5 ± 3.0 3.5 ± 2.8 0.34 4.5 ± 3.0 3.9 ± 2.8 0.23
  1. Abbreviations: P4P pay for performance; STD standardized difference; SD standard deviation; NTD new Taiwan dollar; COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PAOD peripheral artery occlusive disease; VTE venous thromboembolism; DM diabetes mellitus; NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; COX-II cyclooxygenase II; DDP4 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors
  2. Data were presented as frequency (percentage) or mean ± standard deviation