Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of model variables

From: Cost‐effectiveness of intensive care for hospitalized COVID-19 patients: experience from South Africa

Description Base Value Low Value High Value Method or assumption (range for sensitivity analysis) Reference or source
Unit costs
 Cost per general ward day public 3,727.35 1,863.68 5,591.03 Average weighted expenditure per patient day equivalent (± 50 %) [19]
 Cost per ICU day public 17,844.88 8,922.44 26,767.31 Average weighted expenditure per patient day equivalent inflated using private tariff differential (± 50 %) Assumption
 Tariff per general ward day private 5,251.66 2,625.83 7,877.48 Published tariff rates (± 50 %) [18]
 Tariff per ICU day private 25,142.55 12,571.28 37,713.83 Published tariff rates (± 50 %) [18]
Utilisation
 LoS in general ward in severe patients 21.25 7.25 43.00 Literature review (IQR) [11, 12]
 LoS in ICU in critical patients 8.80 4.30 13.30 Literature review (IQR) [8,9,10, 13, 14]
 LoS in general ward in critical patients in absence of ICU 8.80 4.30 13.30 Assumed to be the same as critical patients treated in ICU Assumption
 LoS in general ward in critical patients before/after ICU 1.00 0.00 3.00 Literature review (IQR) [12]
 Proportion needing ICU 0.21 0.05 0.50 Literature review (low and high value) [12,13,14,15, 24,25,26,27]
 Proportion reliant on public health system 0.83 0.42 1.00 Percentage of population without Medical Scheme coverage (-50 %;1) [28]
Mortality rates
 Proportion of severe patients dying 0.11 0.00 0.13 Literature review (low and high value) [12, 14,15,16, 24]
 Proportion of critical patients dying from ICU 0.54 0.24 0.88 Literature review (low and high value) [8,9,10, 12,13,14,15,16, 24, 29, 30]
 Proportion of critical patients dying without access to ICU 0.88 0.70 1.00 Assumed high value on critical patients dying from ICU (-20 %;1) Assumption
DALYs
 Disability weight in severe patients 0.13 0.09 0.19 Disability weight for severe lower respiratory tract infection (95 % CI) [22]
 Disability weight in critical patients 0.41 0.27 0.56 Disability weight for severe pneumoconiosis (95 % CI) [22]
 Duration of illness in severe patients 0.13 0.06 0.19 1.5 months (± 50 %) Assumption
 Duration of illness in critical patients 0.17 0.08 0.25 2 months (± 50 %) Assumption
 Duration of illness prior to death 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.5 months (± 50 %) Assumption
 Years of life lost if dying from COVID-19 5.40 2.70 8.10 5.4 years (± 50 %) [21]
Other
 Cost-effectiveness threshold per DALY averted 38,465.46    Used to assess value for money; if ICER < CET intervention potentially cost-effective [7]