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Table 5 Trauma resource stock-outs at low and high resource availability hospitals in Ghana

From: Assessment of local supply chains and stock management practices for trauma care resources in Ghana: a comparative small sample cross-sectional study

  Low resource availability hospitals High resource availability hospitals
Item Number of facilities that have experienced stockout in last 6 months Number of stock out in 6 months Days of stockout in 6 months Number of facilities that have experienced stockout in last 6 months Number of stock out in 6 months Days of stockout in 6 months
  n = 5 Median (range) Median (range) n = 5 Median (range) Median (range)
Airway (A) resources
 Oral airways 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Nasal airways 1 0 (0–10) 0 (0–180) 0 0   0  
 Nasal cannula 2 0 (0–10) 0 (0–180) 0 0   0  
 Oxygen masks 2 0 (0–5) 0 (0–180) 0 0   0  
 Endotracheal tubes 3 1 (0–1) 10 (0–180) 0 0   0  
 Bougie 2 1 (0–1) 14 (0–180) 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–30)
 Endotracheal and tracheostomy ties 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–24) 0 0   0  
 Yankauer tips 2 0 (0–1) 0 (0–175) 0 0   0  
 Suction tubing 2 0 (0–1) 0   0 0   0  
 Nasogastric tubes 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–17) 0 0   0  
 Cervical collars 2 1 (0–1) 10 (0–53) 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–30)
Breathing (B) resources
 Chest tubes 0 0   0   1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–12)
 Underwater seal containters 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Bag-valve-mask 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–180) 0 0   0  
 Ventilator circuit tubing 0 0   0   0 0   0  
Circulation (C) resources
 Blood pressure cuffs 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–90) 1 0 (0–2) 0 (0–24)
 Spirit (isopropyl alcohol) 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–14) 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–90)
 Absorbent cotton wool 2 0 (0–7) 0 (0–39) 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–10)
 IV cannulas 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 IV fluid administration sets 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–7) 0 0   0  
 Blood administration sets 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Intraosseous needles 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Central venous access sets 1 0 (0–5) 0 (0–180) 0 0   0  
 Syringes 3 1 (0–2) 14 (0–21) 0 0   0  
 Sharps disposable container 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Cardiac monitor leads 1 3 (0–5) 90 (0–180) 1 0   0  
 Electrocardiogram leads 1 1   13   0 0   0  
 Electrocardiogram paper 1 1   16   0 0   0  
 Defibrillator pads 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Urine dipsticks 0 0   0   1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–5)
 Urinary catheters 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Urinary and drainage catch-bags 0 0   0   0 0   0  
Disability (D) and exposure (E) resources
 Splint padding material 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Plaster of Paris 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Gloves (examination) 0 0   0   1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–3)
 Face masks 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Eye protection 0 0   0   0 0   0  
Adjunct and other resources
 Xray development supplies 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Ultrasound gel 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–10) 0 0   0  
 Iodine or chlorhexidine 0 0   0   1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–15)
 Disposable needles 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Otoscope tips 2 1 (0–1) 13 (0–16) 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–30)
 Glucose test strips 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Finger stick lancets 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–14) 0 0   0  
 Insulin needles 1 0 (0–5) 0 (0–180) 0 0   0  
Surgical resources
 Scalpel blades 0 0 (0–1) 0 (0–14) 0 0   0  
 Surgical drains 0 0   0   1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–60)
 Sutures 2 0 (0–2) 0 (0–30) 0 0   0  
 Sterile gauze 1 0 (0–1) 0 (0–15) 1 0   0  
 Sterile bandages 0 0   0   0 0   0  
 Gloves (sterile) 0 0   0   4 1 (0–3) 5 (0–15)
39 10   180   17 1   5  
p = 0.01 0.23   0.22