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Table 1 Data collected at the national, community system, pediatric healthcare clinic, and family levels

From: The Mitigating Toxic Stress study design: approaches to developmental evaluation of pediatric health care innovations addressing social determinants of health and toxic stress

Levels and Data Sources Sample Description Methodf No. of participants by time pointg
T1 T2 T3
2018 2019 2020g
National Innovations National leadership of DULCE, I-SCRN and HMG innovations I 16   
Community Systems
 Early Childhood Lead Organizations EC-LINC Leadership in each community I 11   
 Community Service Providers Mental health, child care/early education, home visiting, and public health providersa FG   39  
 Families Parents or caregivers with early childhood service experiences (e.g. home visiting, early intervention)a FG   58  
 Centralized Referral Study A sample of three community Help Me Grow (HMG affiliatesb     
 Help Me Grow Staff Leadership staff within each HMG affiliate FG   13  
 Community Service Providers Mental health, child care/early education, home visiting, or public health services providers that referred families to HMGb FG   24  
 Healthcare Providers Pediatric providers that referred families to HMG I   11  
 Families Parents/caregivers who had utilized HMGb within the past six months FG   17  
Pediatric Healthcare Clinics
 Innovation teams DULCE and I-SCRN team membersc I 54   
 Clinicians Health care staff providing clinical services, regardless of being involved in the DULCE or I-SCRN innovationsd S   63  
 Families Parents/caregivers who received pediatric health care services at each clinic within the past year FG   110  
Families (n = 908) Parents of newborns age 2 to 24 weeks who received pediatric health care services at each clinice SI 888h
(98%)
764
(84%)
707
(78%)
  1. aCommunity service providers were nominated for focus groups by the early childhood lead organization; families with experience accessing early childhood services were nominated for interviews by either the early childhood lead organization or community service providers
  2. bHMG affiliates (n = 3) were selected based on geographic diversity (2 urban and 1 rural community) and years of HMG implementation in response to a request for applications. Community service providers, healthcare providers, and families with recent referral experiences with HMG were nominated by HMG staff
  3. cIncludes the physician or nurse practitioner innovation champion, DULCE family specialist (as applicable), DULCE legal partner (as applicable), DULCE early childhood lead (as applicable), social worker(s), clinic administrator, and in some clinics behavioral health leadership
  4. dIncludes physicians, pediatricians, nurse staff, medical assistants, and physician assistants
  5. e908 families were recruited from the 9 participating health clinics by study field interviewers February 1, 2018-May 31, 2019
  6. fI Interview, FG Focus group, S Survey, SI Survey Interview. Family focus groups were conducted in both English and Spanish (15 total English FGs and 13 total Spanish FGs)
  7. gTime points refer to data collection as planned and may not precisely match calendar years of data completion
  8. hFor family survey interviews, T1, T2 and T3 are infant age 2 weeks-6 months (T1), 7–11 months (T2), and 12–15 months, with at least 30 days between interviews