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Table 3 Healthcare use and costs among patients with diagnosed HCU, elevated tHcy without HCU, and PKU

From: Prevalence, characteristics, and costs of diagnosed homocystinuria, elevated homocysteine, and phenylketonuria in the United States: a retrospective claims-based comparison

 Strictly-defined HCUaBroadly-defined HCUbElevated tHcycPKUd
N = 2450N = 6613N = 2017N = 5120
N (%) or Mean (SD)MedianN (%) or Mean (SD)MedianN (%) or Mean (SD)MedianN (%) or Mean (SD)Median
Months of follow-up23.5 (16.4)*^19.012.7 (13.4)*^9.214.5 (14.5)*9.426.4 (22.1)19.9
Inpatient (IP) admissions
 Patients with > 1 IP admission444 (18.1%)*892 (13.5%)^393 (19.5%)*630 (12.3%)
 Number of IP admissions PPPMe0.01 (0.06)^0.00.04 (0.49)*0.00.03 (0.17)*0.00.01 (0.08)0.0
 Total days of hospitalization PPPM0.07 (0.42)^0.00.17 (1.70)*0.00.22 (1.35)*0.00.08 (0.68)0.0
 IP costs PPPM$385 ($2937)^$0$1191 ($26,270)*$0$605 ($2534)$0$407 ($4564)$0
Emergency room (ER) visits
 Patients with > 1 ER visit754 (30.8%)1349 (20.4%)*^570 (28.3%)*1576 (30.8%)
 Number of ER visits PPPM0.04 (0.13)^0.00.05 (0.29)*0.00.06 (0.17)*0.00.04 (0.27)0.0
 ER costs PPPM$66 ($277)*$0$85 ($514)*$0$80 ($350)*$0$39 ($178)$0
Outpatient (OP) office visits
 Patients with > 1 OP office visit2422 (98.9%)*^6354 (96.1%)*^1840 (91.2%)*4865 (95.0%)
 Number of OP office visits PPPM0.81 (0.69)*^0.60.97 (1.23)*^0.70.89 (1.84)*0.60.65 (1.56)0.4
 OP office visit costs PPPM$90 ($103)$66$113 ($175)*^$70$87 ($109)$60$89 ($202)$52
Lab tests
 Patients with > 1 OP lab test2301 (93.9%)*5329 (80.6%)*^1905 (94.4%)*4469 (87.3%)
 Number of OP lab tests PPPM2.2 (3.2)*^1.42.4 (5.5)*^1.25.3 (19.6)*2.51.2 (3.6)0.4
 OP lab test costs PPPM$73 ($198)*$28$84 ($333)*$20$92 ($457)*$32$47 ($176)$8
Other OP visits
 Patients with > 1 other OP visit2413 (98.5%)*^6061 (91.7%)*^1927 (95.5%)4868 (95.1%)
 Number of other OP visits PPPM1.4 (1.9)*^0.91.5 (2.3)*^0.81.8 (3.6)*0.91.0 (4.8)0.5
 Other OP costs PPPM$647 ($2464)*$190$751 ($3079)*$155$709 ($1984)+$150$477 ($3838)$81
OP prescriptions
 Patients with > 1 OP prescription2345 (95.7%)*^5893 (89.1%)*^1850 (91.7%)* 4147 (81.0%)
 Number of OP prescriptions PPPM2.5 (2.2)*^1.92.5 (3.1)*^1.82.8 (2.8)*2.11.0 (2.4)0.4
 OP prescription costs PPPM$366 ($1016)*$107$347 ($1214)*$76$313 ($746)*$80$1063 ($4186)$12
Total medical costsfPPPM$1262 ($4353)^$385$2224 ($26,689)*$358$1573 ($3804)*$369$1060 ($6777)$243
Total healthcare costsgPPPM$1629 ($4753)*$614$2570 ($26,758)$576$1886 ($3969)$579$2123 ($7987)$365
  1. a > 2 HCU diagnoses, including > 1 ICD-10 diagnosis; b > 1 ICD-10 HCU diagnosis; c tHcy lab result > 20 μmol/L; d > 1 ICD-9 or ICD-10 PKU diagnosis; e Mean (SD) and median number of services and costs calculated among all patients, including those who did and did not have > 1 of that healthcare service during follow-up; f All IP and OP medical services (not including outpatient prescriptions); g Medical + outpatient prescriptions; *significantly different from PKU, p < 0.05; ^significantly different from elevated tHcy, p < 0.05; SD standard deviation, PPPM per patient per month