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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of patients with strictly- and broadly-defined HCU, elevated tHcy without HCU, and PKU

From: Prevalence, characteristics, and costs of diagnosed homocystinuria, elevated homocysteine, and phenylketonuria in the United States: a retrospective claims-based comparison

 Strictly-defined HCUaBroadly-defined HCUbElevated tHcycPKUd
N = 2450N = 6613N = 2017N = 5120
Age (mean, SD)56.8 (14.6)*^55.5 (14.8)*^52.8 (15.0)*17.5 (21.0)
Age groups
 0–1118 (0.7%)*34 (0.5%)*11 (0.5%)*2734 (53.4%)
 12–1719 (0.8%)*49 (0.7%)*21 (1.0%)*439 (8.6%)
 18–2433 (1.3%)*^119 (1.8%)*45 (2.2%)*381 (7.4%)
 25–3482 (3.3%)*^339 (5.1%)*^153 (7.6%)*569 (11.1%)
 35–44245 (10.0%)*^778 (11.8%)*^291 (14.4%)*348 (6.8%)
 45–54590 (24.1%)*1596 (24.1%)*528 (26.2%)*232 (4.5%)
 55–64845 (34.5%)*2227 (33.7%)*650 (32.2%)*211 (4.1%)
 65–74349 (14.2%)*^810 (12.2%)*^155 (7.7%)*121 (2.4%)
 75–84193 (7.9%)*^480 (7.3%)*^115 (5.7%)*58 (1.1%)
 85+76 (3.1%)*181 (2.7%)*48 (2.4%)*27 (0.5%)
Male1266 (51.7%)*^3254 (49.2%)*^893 (44.3%)*2406 (47.0%)
Region
 Northeast299 (12.2%)*^820 (12.4%)*^409 (20.3%)*906 (17.7%)
 North Central681 (27.8%)*^1574 (23.8%)*^347 (17.2%)*1014 (19.8%)
 South992 (40.5%)*^2877 (43.5%)*^1075 (53.3%)*1751 (34.2%)
 West474 (19.3%)*^1323 (20.0%)*^185 (9.2%)*1388 (27.1%)
 Missing4 (0.1%)*20 (0.3%)*^1 (0.04%)*61 (1.2%)
Urban residence2219 (90.6%)*^5978 (90.4%)*^1880 (93.2%)*4357 (85.1%)
Insurance type
 Comprehensive353 (14.4%)*^853 (12.9%)*^175 (8.9%)*138 (2.7%)
 HMO155 (6.3%)*^430 (6.5%)*^249 (12.3%)558 (10.9%)
 EPO/PPO1402 (57.2%)*^3710 (56.1%)*1088 (53.9%)*3277 (64.0%)
 POS/POS w/ capitation190 (7.8%)*489 (7.4%)152 (7.5%)333 (6.5%)
 Other301 (12.3%)*^979 (14.8%)*301 (14.9%)*507 (9.9%)
 Unknown49 (2.0%)*145 (2.2%)*52 (2.6%)*307 (6.0%)
  1. a > 2 HCU diagnoses, including > 1 ICD-10 diagnosis; b > 1 ICD-10 HCU diagnosis; c tHcy lab result > 20 μmol/L; d > 1 ICD-9 or ICD-10 PKU diagnosis; EPO/PPO: exclusive provider organization/preferred provider organization; HCU homocystinuria, HMO health maintenance organization, PKU phenylketonuria, POS point of service, SD standard deviation, tHcy total homocysteine; *significantly different from PKU, p < 0.05; ^significantly different from elevated tHcy, p < 0.05