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Table 3 Specific examples of bridging within each domain applied to a matrix adapted from Thorncroft and Tansella (1998)

From: A scoping review to characterize bridging tasks in the literature on aging with disability

DomainSystem levelInputTasksOutcome
PolicyMacro• Policy development / changes– that mandate joint collaboration and planning / degradation of structures promoting silos• Service delivery - funding of services
• Collaboration and joint planning & service development
Not specified
Research and trainingMacro• Policies calling for collaboration and consideration of both aging and disability issues
Aging and disability research and training consortiums / professional associations / special interest groups
• Planning,
• Collaboration, in research
• Advocacy and awareness raising
Knowledge creation through research and policy studies on aging and disability
Informed stakeholders on aging/disability issues
Meso University centres in aging and developmental disability
Inter-agency partnerships / memorandums of agreement
Resources to support research (e.g., databases, data collection materials, protected staff time)
• Monitoring / surveillance of community needs / opportunities/needs for bridging
• Training & Education
• Collaboration and joint planning & service development
Information on community needs to inform policy & service planning
Training to interdisciplinary teams / health workforce and research trainees
Curriculum development to train aging and disability workers
Micro Supportive organizational culture
• Partnership / collaboration between disability service and geriatric assessment clinic
• Collaboration and joint planning & service development
• Training and Mentoring – rotating health professionals, providing exposure to different systems (disability or aged care specialty services)
Not specified
Health and social service deliveryMacro• Policies mandating collaboration, and attention to aging and disability issues
Inter-agency partnerships / memorandums of agreement
Shared values, theories and frames of reference
• Collaboration, planning, advocacy, establishing and adapting services Improving accessibility of care and the quality of services provided
Enhanced efficiency of service systems
Improving quality of life, inclusion of persons with disabilities, and aging in place.
Meso Consultants / experts in aging and disability and agencies with dedicated staffing to provide information and facilitate access to resources
Inter-agency partnerships / memorandums of agreement
• Planning Committees
Organizational policies
• Collaboration, planning, establishing and adapting services
• Advising, Liaising and Facilitating – sharing of resources, enhanced collaboration across agencies, and advising on existing services/supports
• Training of health workforce
Improving the quality of care
Earlier and more accurate diagnosis of health issues
Improving quality of life, inclusion of persons with disabilities, and aging in place.
Micro Social worker, nurses, case manager
Individuals living with disability, Curriculum / training initiatives to develop community skills in bridging
• Training and skill development –for clients and families
• Establishing services, Care coordination, Assessment, Liaising, Facilitating, Navigation
• Mentoring
Facilitating timely and appropriate access to care, system navigation, aging in place, enhanced client choice regarding care
Inclusion of adults with IDD in community groups for older adults
Nano Social worker, nurses, case manager• Individualised client planning, Care coordination, Navigation, Facilitating, Referral Not specified
  1. Note- bridging tasks identified in our review are bolded to distinguish them from inputs and outcomes. Bridging may be a task in one domain and an input in another. Some tasks were observed to facilitate bridging in other areas