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Table 5 Estimated additional costs of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription in ambulatory care (unit = million USD)a

From: Cost of inappropriate antimicrobial use for upper respiratory infection in Japan

Class2013201420152016
Third-generation cephalosporins134·7
(132·0–137·5)
114·1
(111·9–116·3)
113·8
(111·5–116·1)
93·7
(91·7–95·7)
Macrolides133·8
(130·6–137·1)
101·7
(99·3–104·1)
108·1
(105·6–110·5)
93·4
(91·2–95·6)
Fluoroquinolones135·4
(131·2–139·7)
108·1
(104·9–111·4)
111·2
(107·9–114·6)
93·5
(90·6–96·5)
Total403·9
(394·8–414·3)
323·9
(316·1–331·8)
333·1
(325·0–341·2)
280·0
(273·5–287·8)
  1. a Values in parentheses represent 95% confidence intervals