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Table 6 Summary of incremental cost effectiveness analysis results

From: Cost-effectiveness of pain management services for chronic low back pain: a systematic review of published studies

Study IDIntervention/ComparatorOutcome
Intervention costCost differenceOutcome differenceICER
Skouen 2002 [19] NorwayMultidisciplinary treatment vs usual careReturn to workNoK 9023Not reportedNet productivity gain NoK 7,858,100 (USD 924500)Net productivity gain = NoK 7,240,900(USD 852000)
Rivero-Arias 2005 [22] UKIntensive rehabilitation vs surgical stabilisationQALY£1410- £3304- 0.06848,588 £ per QALY (CE threshold 20,000-30,000£ per QALY)
Smeets 2009 [21] NetherlandCombined treatment vs active physical treatmentRMDSNot reported- €456- 1.23371 € per one point reduction in RMDS
QALY0.01435,060 € per QALY
Combined treatment vs graded activity plus problem solvingRMDS€4765- 1.27(dominated)
QALY- 0.045(dominated)
Lambeek 2010 [20] NetherlandsIntegrated care vs usual careReturn to work (days)£1077£217 (direct cost)- 68-3a £ per 1 day earlier return to work
QALY- £5310 (total cost)0.09(dominant)
Johnsen 2014 [18] NorwayMultidisciplinary rehabilitation vs total disc replacementQALY using EQ-5D€5977- €13,506- 0.3439748a € per QALY
QALY using SF-6D0.11128,328 € per QALY (CE threshold €74,600 per QALY)
  1. aCost effective, NoK Norwegian Krone, QALY quality adjusted life years, USD United States Dollar