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Table 5 Economic evaluation based on CHEERS criteria (statistical analysis and results)

From: Cost-effectiveness of pain management services for chronic low back pain: a systematic review of published studies

Study IDStatistical analysis of cost dataStatistical analysis for missing dataIncremental economic analysis reportedSensitivity analysisDifference in outcomeDifference in costsDifference in outcome and costs
Skouen 2002 [19] NorwayNot reported, only mean difference in outcome evaluated by ANOVA. RR and 95% CI for the effect of intervention versus comparator on outcome.Not reportedproductivity gain = NoK 7,858,100 - cost, the net productivity gain = 240,900Not performedYesNot reportedNo
Rivero-Arias [22] 2005 UKArithmetic mean for cost and outcomesIntention to treat and multiple imputation (variance correction)Bootstrapping (1000 replications)YesNoYesYes
Smeets 2009 [21] Netherlandstudent t test for change in outcomes, linear regression to adjust for baseline differencesIntention to treat analysis, missing data were replaced by mean score of cost and utilityBootstrapping (1000 replications)YesNoNoNo
Lambeek [20] 2010 NetherlandsNot reportedIntention to treat analysis, multiple imputationBootstrapping (5000 replications)YesYesYesYes
Johnsen 2014 [18] NorwayStudent t test for cost and utilitiesIntention to treat analysis, multiple imputationBootstrapping (10,000 replications)YesYesYesYes
  1. ANOVA analysis of variance, RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, MDT multidisciplinary treatment, NoK Norwegian Krone