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Table 2 Service description in the included studies

From: Cost-effectiveness of pain management services for chronic low back pain: a systematic review of published studies

Study IDStaff delivering the interventionIntervention descriptionNumber of hours/day and durationNotes
Skouen 2002 [19] NorwayPT Nurse Psychologist (if necessary)Light intervention: Assessment, a lecture, three individual sessions and individually-based graded exercise.Assessment (1–2 h) Lecture (1 h)
Total for individual sessions (45 min)
Some people were offered visits to an external PT, local National Health Insurance and workplace visits.
Extensive intervention: Educational sessions, exercises and (occasional) workplace intervention6 h, 5 days a week for 4 weeks.
Rivero-Arias 2005 [22] United KingdomPT and clinical psychologistEducation Exercises and hydrotherapy5 days a week for 3 weeks The total hours were 60–110 (75 h on average)One of the centres did not have a psychologist or hydrotherapy sessions.
Smeets 2009 [21] NetherlandsPT Clinical psychologist social workerPhysiotherapy Graded activity with problem-solving trainingPhysiotherapy: 105 min three times a week for 10 weeks Graded activity: 19 sessions starting from 3rd week. 
Lambeek 2010 [20] NetherlandsOT physician PT OT medical specialistWorkplace intervention Graded activityGraded activity (26 sessions) for 3 months or until RTWCoordinated
Johnsen 2014 [18] NorwayPT Specialist in physical medicineLectures and individual discussions Daily workout60 h over 3–5 weeksNurse, psychologist or social worker as needed
  1. PT Physiotherapist, OT Occupational therapist