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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Cost-effectiveness of pain management services for chronic low back pain: a systematic review of published studies

Study IDSettingTarget population/sample sizeInterventionComparator(s)
Skouen 2002 [19] NorwayOutpatient spine clinicPatient sick listed for at least 8 weeks or employees not on sick leave but sick listed for at least 2 months /year
n = 195
Light multidisciplinary programme (assessment by physiotherapist and psychologist + individual education and feedback)
Extensive multidisciplinary programme (4-week programme - 6 h session 5 days/week) consisting of CBT, education, exercises, work place intervention)
Usual care
Rivero-Arias 2005 [22] United KingdomSecondary care18–55 years with CLBP > 1 year
n = 349
Intensive rehabilitation programme (education + exercise) led by a physiotherapist and clinical psychologistSpinal stabilisation surgery
Smeets 2009 [21] NetherlandsPrimary careAge between 18 and 65 years with CLBP> 3 months with RMD score > 3
n = 172
Active physical treatment + graded activity + problem training2 comparators: active physical treatment and graded activity plus problem training
Lambeek 2010 [20] NetherlandsPrimary and secondary careAdults (18–65) with CLBP in paid work for at least 8 h/week on partial sick leave
n = 134
Integrated care programme (workplace intervention + graded activity)Usual care
Johnsen 2014 [18] NorwayHospitalAdults with CLBP > 1 year with degenerative change in lumbosacral intervertebral disc n = 173Multidisciplinary rehabilitation (outpatient programme focussed on exercise and CBT delivered by a physiotherapist and physical medicine specialist)Total disc replacement surgery
  1. CLBP chronic low back pain, CBT cognitive behavioural therapy, RMD Roland Morris Disability