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Table 3 Characteristics of the WNCSs

From: Nursing staff’s evaluation of facilitators and barriers during implementation of wireless nurse call systems in residential care facilities. A cross-sectional study

WNCS device/applicationFeaturesRCF
Mobile transceiver for residentWrist band or pendantxxxxx
Call functionxxxxx
Fall detection (wearable based)     
Indoor localization  x*x
Outdoor tracking (e.g. GPS)* x*x
Speech interface  xxx
Programmed to unlock/open/lock doorsx    
Alarm button (bedside/bathroom)Optional for residents with dementiax  x 
Ambient sensors for resident monitoringBed-exit sensorsxxxxx
Door sensors (indoor)x  x 
Front-door sensorsx xxx
Fall detection (ambient or vision based)     
PIR based motion detectionxxxxx
Smartphone for care providersReceive and mange calls/alerts from residentsxxxxx
Receive and mange alerts from ambient sensorsxxxxx
Call on /talk to colleaguesxxxxx
Emergency call function xxxx
Task assignment and prioritizingxxxxx
Wall mounted modules for care providers in corridors/common roomsAlarm buttonxxx x
Means to sign out alarmsx    
Speech interface xx x
Emergency call functionx    
Wireless nurse call system solutionAdjustable, individual settings for residentsxxxxx
Managerial reports of system access by whom and when, number of alarms, response times, missed alarmsxxxxx
Smart network access pointsxxxxx
Alarm back-up system if wifi failsx x x
Battery back-up if power outagexxxxx
Integrated with fire alarm systemx xxx
  1. Abbreviations: WNCS wireless nurse call system, RCF Residential care facility, GPS global positioning system, PIR; Passive infra-red. X = Implemented. *Functionality is offered by the system and will be integrated into the care service at a later stage