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Table 3 EPOC implementation strategies [26] identified in the N = 40 included studies

From: Implementation interventions in preventing surgical site infections in abdominal surgery: a systematic review

First author, yearAudit and feedbackOrgani-sational cultureMonito-ring the perfor-mance of the delivery of healthcareRe-mindersEduca-tional meetingsLocal con-sensus processesContinous quality improve-mentLocal opinion leadersEdu-cational materialsClinical practice guidelinesEduca-tional outreach visits, or academic detailingCommu-nities of practiceTailored inter-ventionsMana-gerial super-visionInterpro-fessional educationClinical incident reportingEduca-tional gamesPatient-mediated inter-ventionsPublic release of performance dataRoutine patient-reported outcome measuresNumber of imple-mentation strategies used in studies
Bull, 2011 [34]XXXXXXXX            8
Cameron, 2015 [35]X       X           2
Cima, 2013 [36]XXXXXXX             7
Connolly, 2016 [37] X XXX              4
Crolla, 2012 [38]XXX          X      4
DeHaas, 2016 [39] X        X         2
Elia-Guedea, 2017 [40]XX XX               4
Forbes, 2008 [41]XXX  X X            5
Frenette, 2016 [42]X XX X   X          5
Garcell, 2017 [43]X XXX               4
Geubbels, 2004 [44]X X                 2
Grant, 2018 (Epub 2017) [45] X                  1
Hechenbleikner, 2015 [46]XX  X               3
Hedrick, 2007 [47]XXXXXX              6
Hedrick, 2007 [48]XXXXXX X            7
Hewitt, 2017 [49] X  XX              3
Kao, 2010 [50]XX XX       X       5
Keenan, 2014 [51]X X   X             3
Keenan, 2015 [52]XXXX   X            5
Kilan, 2017 [53]XXXXXX      X X     8
Knox, 2016 [54]   X    X           2
Larochelle, 2011 [55]XXX                 3
Lavu, 2012 [56] X                  1
Liau, 2010 [57]XXXXXX  XX          8
Losh, 2017 [58]XXXXX XX   X        8
Lutfiyya, 2012 [59]XXXXX X             6
Mammo, 2016 [60]    X    X          2
Misteli, 2012 [61]   X X              2
Nordin, 2018 (Epub 2017) [62]X X                 2
Pastor, 2010 [63]XXXX  X   X X       7
Pérez-Blanco, 2015 [64]X                   1
Reames, 2015 [65]XXXXX XXX  X X      10
Tanner, 2016 [66]X X    X            3
Tillman, 2013 [67]XXX X   X           5
Vogel, 2010 [68]XXXX  X             5
Vu, 2018 (Epub 2017) [69]XXX  XXX  XX        8
Waters, 2017 [70]X X                 2
Wick, 2012 [71]XXXXX XXX           8
Wick, 2015 [72]XXXX XXX  X         8
Willis, 2016 [73]XX   X   X          4
Number of studies the implementation strategy was used in3228262118141110644332100000 
% of studies the implementation strategy was used in80%70%65%52.5%45%35%27.5%25%15%10%10%7.5%7.5%5%2.5%0%0%0%0%0%