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Table 2 Study characteristics of N = 40 included studies

From: Implementation interventions in preventing surgical site infections in abdominal surgery: a systematic review

First author, year, countryStudy designType of surgerySample sizeSSI OutcomeSSI rateCompliance rate
Bull, 2011, Australia [34]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: NR
Cohort: 142
Baseline: NR
Cohort: 10
Baseline: 15%
Cohort: 7%
Baseline: 5,3% (global)
Cohort: 21,1% (global)
Cameron, 2015, UKc [35]Cohort (before/after)Gastrointestinal surgeryBaseline: 58
Cohort: 73
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: 31% (global)
Cohort: 73% (global)
Cima, 2013, US [36]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 531
Cohort: 198
Baseline: 52
Cohort: 8
Baseline: 9.8%
Cohort: 4%
Baseline: only for individual measures
Cohort: only for individual measures
Connolly, 2016, US [37]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 379
Cohort: 328
Baseline: 122
Cohort: 27
Baseline: 32.2%
Cohort: 8.2%
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Crolla, 2012, Netherlands [38]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 349
Cohort: 377
Baseline: 85
Cohort: 61
Baseline: 21.6%
Cohort: 16.2%
Baseline: 10% (global)
Cohort: 80% (global)
DeHaas, 2016, US [39]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 277
Cohort: 254
Baseline: 49a
Cohort: 13a
Baseline: 17.58%
Cohort: 5.11%
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Elia-Guedea, 2017, Spain [40]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 70
Cohort: 79
Baseline: 22
Cohort: 11
Baseline: 31.4%
Cohort: 13.9%
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Forbes, 2008, Canadac [41]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal or hepatobiliary surgeryBaseline: 105
Cohort: 103
Baseline: 15a (superficial)
Cohort: 9a (superficial)
Baseline: 14.3% (superficial)
Cohort: 8.7% (superficial)
Baseline: only for individual measures
Cohort: only for individual measures
Frenette, 2016, Canada [42]Cohort (before/after)Hepatobiliary Surgery, Solid Organ Transplantation (liver, kidney, pancreas)Baseline: 453
Cohort: 971
Baseline: 79
Cohort: 80
Baseline: 17.4%
Cohort: 8.2%
Baseline: 45.1% (global)
Cohort: 60.3% (global)
Garcell, 2017, Qatarc [43]CohortAppendix surgeryBaseline: 59
Cohort: 300
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: only for individual measures
Cohort: only for individual measures
Geubbels, 2004, Netherlands [44]Cohort (before/after)Appendix surgeryBaseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: 14.9%
Cohort: 3.6%
Baseline: NR
Cohort: 81% (individual measure)
Grant, 2018 (Epub 2017), US c [45]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 401
Cohort: 763
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Hechenbleikner, 2015, US [46]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline:
Cohort: 387
Baseline:
Cohort: 71
Baseline: 22.4%
Cohort: 18.9%
Baseline: only for individual measures
Cohort: only for individual measures
Hedrick, 2007, US [47]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 175
Cohort: 132
Baseline: 45
Cohort: 21
Baseline: 25.6%
Cohort: 15.9%
Baseline: only for individual measures
Cohort: only for individual measures
Hedrick, 2007, US [48]Cohort (before/after)Intra-Abdominal SurgeryBaseline: 379
Cohort: 390
Baseline: 35a
Cohort: 22a
Baseline: 9.2%
Cohort: 5.6%
Baseline: only for individual measures
Cohort: only for individual measures
Hewitt, 2017, US [49]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 489
Cohort: 212
Baseline: 68
Cohort: 10
Baseline: 13.9%
Cohort: 4.7%
Baseline: NR
Cohort: 80% (global)
Kao, 2010, US [50]Cohort (controlled staggered before/after)Colorectal surgery,
abdominal hysterectomies, and abdominal vascular
operations
Baseline: 91a
Cohort: 62a
Baseline: 4a
Cohort: 2a
Baseline: 4.4%a (colorectal)
Cohort: 3.2%a (colorectal)
Baseline: NR (graphical only)
Cohort: 63.7% (global)
Keenan, 2014, US [51]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 212
Cohort: 212
Baseline: 55a
Cohort: 18a
Baseline: 25.9%a
Cohort: 8.5%a
Baseline: NR
Cohort: only for individual measures (narrative)
Keenan, 2015, US [52]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 337
Cohort: 285
Baseline: 116a
Cohort: 26a
Baseline: 34.4%a
Cohort: 9.1%a
Baseline: NR
Cohort: only for individual measures
Kilan, 2017, Saudi Arabia [53]Cohort (before/after)Gastrointestinal surgeryBaseline: 55
Cohort: 214
Baseline: 5
Cohort: 11
Baseline: 9.1%
Cohort: 5.1%
Baseline: 47.3% (global)
Cohort: 82.2% (global)
Knox, 2016, Australiac [54]Cohort (before/after)Abdominal general surgeryBaseline: 100
Cohort: 100
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: 18% (global)
Cohort: 15% (global)
Larochelle, 2011, USc [55]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: NR
Cohort: 706
Baseline: NR
Cohort: 87
Baseline: NR
Cohort: 12.3%
Baseline: NR
Cohort: only for individual measures
Lavu, 2012, US [56]Cohort (before/after)Pancreatic surgeryBaseline: 233
Cohort: 233
Baseline: 35
Cohort: 18
Baseline: 15.0%
Cohort: 7.7%
Baseline: NR
Cohort: narrative only (global)
Liau, 2010, Singapore [57]Cohort (before/after)Gastrointestinal and hernia surgeryBaseline: 1065a
Cohort: 2408
Baseline: 33a
Cohort: 12
Baseline: 3.1%
Cohort: 0.5%
Baseline: NR
Cohort: only for individual measures
Losh, 2017, USc [58]Cohort (before/after)General, orthopedic, colorectal, oncological, OB/GYN, neurosurgery
and urology surgical subspecialties
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: 6.9%b
Cohort: 1.6%b
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Lutfiyya, 2012, US [59]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 430
Cohort: 195
Baseline: 91
Cohort: 13
Baseline: 21.16%
Cohort: 6.67%
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Mammo, 2016, USc [60]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 273
Cohort: 212
Baseline: 5a (deep)
Cohort: 0 (deep)
Baseline: 1.8% (deep)
Cohort: 0% (deep)
Baseline: only for individual measures
Cohort: only for individual measures
Misteli, 2012, Switzerland [61]Cohort (before/after)Vascular, visceral, and trauma surgery (Subgroup: Cholecystectomy and Colon Surgery)Baseline: 483
Cohort: 257
Baseline: 44
Cohort: 25
Baseline: 9.1%
Cohort: 9.7%a
Baseline: 41% (individual measure)
Cohort: 56% (individual measure)
Nordin, 2018 (Epub 2017), US [62]Cohort (before/after)Pediatric gastrointestinal surgeryBaseline: NR
Cohort: 1595
Baseline: NR
Cohort: 75a
Baseline: 7.1%
Cohort: 4.7%
Baseline: 43% (global)
Cohort: 80% (global)
Pastor, 2010, US [63]Cohort (early
and late implementation period)
Colorectal SurgeryBaseline: 238
Cohort: 235
Baseline: 45
Cohort: 49
Baseline: 18.9%
Cohort: 19.4%
Baseline: 30% (global)
Cohort: 50% (global)
Pérez-Blanco, 2015, Spain [64]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 218
Cohort: 124
Baseline: 60
Cohort: 21
Baseline: 27.5%
Cohort: 16.9%
Baseline: 62.6% (global)
Cohort: 81,1% (global)
Reames, 2015, US c [65]Cohort (before/after)Abdominal general surgeryBaseline:14,005 Cohort: 14,801Baseline: 449a (superficial)
Cohort: 474a (superficial)
Baseline: 3.2% (superficial)
Cohort: 3.2% (superficial)
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Tanner, 2016, UK [66]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 127
Cohort: 166
Baseline: 31
Cohort: 46
Baseline: 24%
Cohort: 28%
Baseline: only for individual measures
Cohort: 19% (global)
Tillman, 2013, US [67]Cohort (before/after)Cardiac surgery, colorectal surgery, general surgery (non-colorectal non-vascular), gynecologic surgery, orthopedic surgery, thoracic surgery, and vascular surgeryBaseline: 79
Cohort: 104
Baseline: 19
Cohort: 12
Baseline: 24.1% (colorectal)
Cohort: 11.5% (colorectal)
Baseline: only for individual measures
Cohort: only for individual measures
Vogel, 2010, Germany [68]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 332
Cohort: 341
Baseline: 26
Cohort: 12
Baseline: 7.8%
Cohort: 3.5%
Baseline: NR
Cohort: narrative only (global)
Vu, 2018 (Epub 2017), US [69]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Baseline: 6.7%
Cohort: 3.9%
Baseline: only for individual measures
Cohort: only for individual measures
Waters, 2017, US [70]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 2408
Cohort: 2873
Baseline: 193a
Cohort: 172a
Baseline: 8%
Cohort: 6%
Baseline: only for individual measures
Cohort: only for individual measures
Wick, 2012, US [71]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 278
Cohort: 324
Baseline: 76
Cohort: 59
Baseline: 27.3%
Cohort: 18.2%
Baseline: only for individual measures
Cohort: only for individual measures
Wick, 2015, US [72]Cohort (before/after)Colorectal surgeryBaseline: 310
Cohort: 330
Baseline: 59a
Cohort: 24a
Baseline: 18.8%
Cohort: 7.3%
Baseline: NR
Cohort: NR
Willis, 2016, US [73]Cohort (before/after)Appendix surgery (Pediatric
Complicated Appendicitis)
Baseline: 191
Cohort: 122
Baseline: 50a
Cohort: 14a
Baseline: 26.2%a
Cohort: 11.4%a
Baseline: NR
Cohort: 87.5% (global)
  1. Notes: NR Not reported; a self-calculated; b all cases (abdominal cases were not separately reported); c not included in effectiveness analysis due to missing overall baseline or cohort. SSI rates or not separately reported abdominal SSI rates