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Table 2 Domains and indicators related to hospital resilience in the studied articles

From: Towards developing a model for the evaluation of hospital disaster resilience: a systematic review

Tool 1: Hospital Safety Index (HSI) [27]
StructuralStructural system design, Construction materials, Interaction of nonstructural elements with the structure, Proximity of buildings, Structural redundancy, Structural integrity, Irregularities in the building, Safety, and the condition of connections, column, beam and, foundations.
Non- StructuralCondition and safety of elements, Layout of hospital’s critical services and equipment, Safety of access routes, Emergency exit and, evacuation routes, Condition and the safety of the utility services, equipment, furniture, and lighting systems, Emergency maintenance and restoration of the utility systems, Water and power supplies for hospital services, Fire/smoke detection systems, Fire suppression systems, Water supply for the fire suppression, Safety of the hazardous materials, Fuel reserves.
FunctionalCoordination of the emergency and disaster management activities, Hospital emergency and disaster plans, Communication and information management, Human resources, Logistics and finance, Patient care and support services, Evacuation, Decontamination and security.
Tool 2: Indicators for Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness in Japan(25)
StructuralEarthquake and fireproof building construction, Suitable layout of hospital building according to background natural hazards of region, Available space for emergency evacuation.
Non- StructuralMedicine/chemicals/potential hazardous substance managements, Material safety data sheets (MSDS).
FunctionalMedical equipment for emergency medical services, In-house power generator, Drinking water, Food, Folded beds, Communication tools, Helipad space, Accessibility (roads), Vehicles for disaster medical assistance team.
Human ResourcesAvailability of personnel, Disaster education, Professional training for the emergency medical service, disaster exercise for hospital staff/workers and patients.
Model 1: System Dynamics Approach to the Seismic Resilience Enhancement of Hospital(45)
EndogenousPatients in backlog, Functional capacity, Patients in hospital, Average treatment time, Total required monetary resources, Monetary resource allocation rate, Building damage, Number of active staff, Medicine inventory.
ExogenousEarthquake intensity, Reserved monetary resources, Patient arrival rate, Initial condition, Effects of deficiency on average treatment time/Fatality rate.
ExcludedTransportation service ability, Condition of supporting Lifelines, Performance of the other hospitals in the region.
Framework1: Framework for Measuring the Hospital Disaster Resilience (33)
Vulnerability and safetyDisease surveillance, Hospital infrastructural safety and vulnerability.
Disaster preparedness and resourcesEmergency leadership, Community cooperation and communication, Disaster plans, Disaster stockpiles and logistics management, Emergency staff, Emergency training and, drills.
Continuity of essential serviceEmergency medicine, Surge capacity.
Recovery and adaptationRecovery capability, Evaluation and adaptation.
Other indicators
Integration of utilities in resilience codes and legislations [37], Hospital retrofitting, Laboratory test, Withstand disaster-induced damage and disruption, Seismic design level, Cost of reconstruction, [39], Desired performance level, Occupancy or usage type, Direct and indirect economic loss [41, 42], Societal preparedness, public policies [42], Dependency of Lifeline, Repair resources [43], Personnel participation in emergency planning, List of personnel contact information, Management and mobilization of volunteers, Agreement with suppliers [45], Continuous electric load analysis and monitoring, Redundancy for most critical areas, Automatic test facilities [51], Updated hospital building documents/ drawings / plans, Internal circulation and interoperability, Hospital standard operating procedures (SOP), Hospital emergency operations center (EOC), Establishing the incident command system (ICS) [53], Providing water from outside sources, prioritizing water consuming activities, Providing contingency plans [54], Permit and clearance [55], Protecting from cyber-attack, Monitoring systems for utility system failure [35], Participation of donors community, Promote research and studies [36], Amount of consumable commodity [58], Cash to purchase supplies and services, Interoperable communications, Management and maintenance of community- based outpatient clinic emergency operations plan, Specialty outpatient services, Provision of ambulatory clinical services, employees welfare, reporting incident system [27], Time under care [40], Soil Type, Ductility, Strength and Stiffness, Configuration: Size and Shape, Structural Systems selection, Interstitial space for utility installations, Design flood elevation, Flood hazard maps [34], Hospital risk assessment, Thermal mass, Insulation, Reduced stress and fatigue [46], Accreditation standards, Community preparedness, Mitigation budget, Onsite technical expertise, Mutual aid agreements, Homecare infrastructure, Ability to discharge noncritical patients, Facility age, Length of power outage, Statue of other infrastructures, Time of power failure, Statue of organizational robustness, Statue of technical robustness [47].