*otpeit* | Dependent variable | Per visit of hospital outpatient PE |

*itpe*_{it} | Dependent variable | Per capita of hospital inpatient PE |

*hlpt*_{it} | Independent variable | Number of hospital pharmacists per 1 million of population |

*hlpn*_{it} | Control variable | Number of hospital physicians per 1 million of population |

*DPI*_{it} | Control variable | Drug price index |

*α*i | Individual intercept coefficient | |

*γt* | Time intercept coefficient | |

*Di* | Dummy variable | \( {D}_i=\Big\{{\displaystyle \begin{array}{cc}1,& If\kern0.17em belongs\;i\;i=1,2,....,N\\ {}0, Else& \end{array}} \) |

*Wt* | Dummy variable | \( {W}_t=\Big\{{\displaystyle \begin{array}{cc}1,& If\kern0.17em belongs\;t,t=1,2,....,N\\ {}0, Else& \end{array}} \) |

*Ε*_{it} | Error term | |