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Table 1 Variable description

From: Relationship between the number of hospital pharmacists and hospital pharmaceutical expenditure: a macro-level panel data model of fixed effects with individual and time

otpeitDependent variablePer visit of hospital outpatient PE
itpeitDependent variablePer capita of hospital inpatient PE
hlptitIndependent variableNumber of hospital pharmacists per 1 million of population
hlpnitControl variableNumber of hospital physicians per 1 million of population
DPIitControl variableDrug price index
αiIndividual intercept coefficient 
γtTime intercept coefficient 
DiDummy variable\( {D}_i=\Big\{{\displaystyle \begin{array}{cc}1,& If\kern0.17em belongs\;i\;i=1,2,....,N\\ {}0, Else& \end{array}} \)
WtDummy variable\( {W}_t=\Big\{{\displaystyle \begin{array}{cc}1,& If\kern0.17em belongs\;t,t=1,2,....,N\\ {}0, Else& \end{array}} \)
ΕitError term